ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری سواحل شمالی خلیج فارس در برابر ریزش‌های نفتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده فنی و مندسی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 دانش آموخته کارشناس‌ارشد، گروه مهندسی عمران، موسسه آموزش عالی علم و فن، ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

وقوع ریزش‌های نفتی در دریاها و اقیانوس‌ها موجب بروز آسیب‌های کوتاه‌مدت و بلندمدت بسیاری به سواحل و بوم­­سازگان دریایی می‌شوند. بنابراین به‌منظور کاهش خسارات، نقشه‌های جامع آسیب‌پذیری سواحل می‌توانند به‌عنوان ابزاری قدرتمند در اختیار تصمیم‌گیرندگان مدیریت سواحل و نیز تیم مقابله اضطراری با ریزش‌ها قرار بگیرند. در پژوهش حاضر، با تلفیق مدل ریاضی مسیریابی لکه نفتی و نرم‌افزار ArcGIS، سواحل شمالی خلیج‌فارس بر اساس مواجهه با آلودگی‌های نفتی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. به­همین منظور، 20 سناریو ریزش فرضی با نوع نفت و زمان وقوع تصادفی در فصل‌های تابستان و زمستان طراحی شدند. سپس با استفاده از نرم‌افزار لاگرانژی GNOME مسیر حرکت لکه نفتی و زمان رسیدن آن به سواحل شبیه‌سازی شد و بر اساس آن ماتریس مواجهه هر ناحیه ساحلی با آلودگی تشکیل شد. در نهایت، سواحل شمالی خلیج به پنج سطح آسیب‌‌پذیری طبقه‌بندی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در تابستان محدوده بندرهای عسلویه و بوشهر با احتمال تجمعی به­ترتیب 120 و 94% و در زمستان بندر عسلویه با احتمال تجمعی 119% در کل سناریوها در رده آسیب‌پذیری بسیار بالا قرار گرفتند. همچنین، بندرهای بوشهر و عسلویه بالاترین ضریب پتانسیل آسیب‌رسانی به منطقه را به خود اختصاص دادند. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، آسیب‌پذیری سواحل به‌طور قابل‌توجهی تحت تأثیر تغییرات فصلی شرایط اقلیمی منطقه و وضعیت جریان قرار دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Vulnerability Assessment of The Northern Coasts of The Persian Gulf to Oil Spills

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kameleh Aghajanloo 1
  • Mirali Mohammadi 2
  • Mahdi Yadegar Azadi 3
  • Farzad Ghatei 4
1 Assist. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Water Science Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
4 M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Collage of Science and Technology, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

The occurrence of oil spills in the seas and oceans causes many short-term and long-term damages to the coasts and marine ecosystems. Therefore, in order to reduce the damage, comprehensive coastal vulnerability maps can be provided to coastal management decision-makers as well as the emergency response team as a powerful tool. In the present study, by combining the mathematical model of oil slick routing and ArcGIS software, the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf were evaluated based on exposure to oil pollution. For this purpose, 20 hypothetical fall scenarios with oil type and time of random occurrence in summer and winter were designed. Then, using GNOME Lagrangian software, the path of the oil slick and its arrival time to the shores were simulated, and based on that, the matrix of exposure of each coastal area to pollution was formed. Finally, the northern shores of the Gulf were classified into five levels of vulnerability. The results showed that in summer Assaluyeh and Bushehr ports with a cumulative probability of 120 and 94%, respectively, and in winter Assaluyeh port with a cumulative probability of 119% in all scenarios were in a very high vulnerability. In addition, the ports of Bushehr and Assaluyeh had the highest potential for damage to the region. According to the results of this study, coastal vulnerability is significantly affected by seasonal changes in climatic conditions and flow conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oil spill
  • Persian Gulf
  • Risk potential
  • Vulnerability levels
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