آلودگی محیط زیستی تخلیه پسماند شهری بر روی سلامت بوم سازگان دریایی در ساحل خرچنگ کنارک-خلیج چابهار

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زیست‌شناسی دریا، دانشکده علوم دریایی، دانشگاه دریانوردی و علوم دریایی چابهار، چابهار، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی دریا، دانشکده علوم دریایی، دانشگاه دریانوردی و علوم دریایی چابهار، چابهار، ایران

چکیده

ورود مواد استخراجی از زباله‌های شهری، صنعتی و بیمارستانی به بوم­سازگان ‌دریایی یکی از معضلات جدی محیط­زیستی در شهرهای ساحلی است. افزایش زباله به سبب سیر صعودی رشد جمعیت انسانی، باعث تجمع قابل‌ملاحظه این آلاینده‌ها در دریا شده است. یکی از مهم­ترین چالش‌های محیط­زیستی، دفع نامناسب و غیراصولی پسماند در سواحل است. ساحل خرچنگ شهرستان کنارک یکی از این سواحل محسوب می‌شود که دستخوش نابسامانی‌های مدیریت نامناسب پسماند در کشور است. در مطالعه حاضر به بررسی مخاطرات محیط­زیستی احتمالی محل دپوی زباله در ساحل مذکور پرداخته شد. با توجه به نتایج، سیستم سنتی و ناکارآمد دفع زباله در ساحل کنارک در جوار جنگل‌های مانگرو، باعث آلودگی‌ خاک و هوا شده و با ورود شیرابه‌های سمی، پلاستیک و ریزپلاستیک، فلزات سنگین و مواد آلی در بستر ماسه‌ای، گلی و همچنین ورود به آب دریا مسبب مشکلات عدیده بهداشتی در این بوم­سازگان و متعاقباً تخریب محیط­‌زیست دریایی خلیج چابهار شده است. بنابراین، ایجاد و ساماندهی یک سیستم کاملاً استاندارد و مکانیزه بر اساس روش­های به­روز در راستای تحقق سلامت بوم­سازگان منطقه امری ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. همچنین با توجه به نزدیکی محل دپوی زباله با بوم­سازگان آبی دریای عمان، انتخاب اصولی مکانی مناسب جهت دفع و دفن زباله در کاهش خطرات احتمالی محیط­زیستی منطقه مؤثر بوده و باعث بهبود مدیریت پسماند خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental Pollution of Municipal Waste Disposal on the Health of the Marine Ecosystem on the Kharchang Coast, Konarak, Chabahar Bay

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Asefi 1
  • Gilan Attaran Fariman 2
1 M.Sc., Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Chabahar University of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Chabahar, Iran
2 Assoc. Professor, Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Chabahar University of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Chabahar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The entry of materials extracted from municipal, industrial, and hospital waste into the marine ecosystem is one of the serious environmental problems in coastal cities. The increase in waste due to the upward trend in human population growth has led to a significant accumulation of these pollutants in the sea. One of the most important environmental challenges is the improper and unprincipled disposal of waste on the coasts. The Kharchang Coast is one of these beaches that is subject to improper waste management disorders in Iran. In the present study, the possible environmental hazards of the landfill site on the mentioned coast were investigated.
Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the coastal strip of Konarak (25 ͦ 24 ̍ 58 ̎ N: 60 ͦ 25 ̍ 57 ̎ E) with a distance of 40 km from Chabahar and 5 km from Konarak. This research was based on field observations and visits during the years 2018 to 2021 from Kharchang Coast, as well as documentary and library studies with the aim of investigating environmental pollution at the location of the landfill on the coast of Konarak in the Oman Sea.
Results: It was noticed that the waste collection and disposal of system on this coast is completely inefficient and lacks a material recovery facility, so the landfill on the coast is full of polymer, plastic, glass, and metals, which are broken down into smaller pieces and enter the water streams due to high temperatures, wind, and weather. Kharchang Coast is a gathering place for many native and migratory birds, the abandoned plastics attract the birds' attention, and swallowing them causes digestive problems and eventually leads to their death. The region also has a variety of coral ecosystems that the accumulation of plastic and its entry into the water will endanger the health of ecosystems. The respiratory roots of mangrove shrubs have become accumulated with waste and macro-plastics, threatening the health of organisms living in mangrove habitats and the mangrove shrubs themselves. Moreover, the entry of organic matter and micronutrients into the seabed through the leachate of municipal waste and its subsequent mixing with seawater can provide the necessary nutrients for the growth and blooming of seaweed and phytoplankton.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the waste disposal system on the Kharchang Coast is non-standard and lacks mechanized systems and does not pay enough attention to the discussion of the principles of waste management and recycling system. This disrupts the health of the coastal region and aquatic ecosystems, pollutes the air, soil, and marine waters of the region, and consequently threatens the health of aquatic organisms and humans. Therefore, it is clear that the collection and disposal of municipal waste and the restoration of the environment and change the approach to municipal waste disposal in this area to reduce the risks is of great importance. Appropriate measures are taken to adopt appropriate scientific and practical management in order to reduce pollution sources and to support and protect the areas exposed to pollution in order to prevent further destruction of ecosystems, health risks, and soil and water pollution crisis in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Algal Blooms
  • Mangrove forests
  • Municipal Waste
  • Pollution
  • Waste disposal
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