بررسی غلظت فلزات سنگین در رسوبات مصبی رودخانه های مهم بخش جنوبی دریای خزر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی، پژوهشکده علوم دریایی، پژوهشگاه ملی اقیانوس شناسی و علوم جوی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس پژوهشی، پژوهشکده علوم دریایی، پژوهشگاه ملی اقیانوس شناسی و علوم جوی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی غلظت فلزات سنگین در رودخانه‌های مهم بخش جنوبی دریای خزر در سه نقطه بالادست، مصب و عمق 1 تا m 10 دریا، نمونه رسوب سطحی و یک نمونه مغزه برداشت شد. آنالیزهای دانه‌بندی، سنجش ماده آلی، و تعیین غلظت فلزات سنگین بر روی نمونه‌ها انجام گرفت. بیش­ترین مقادیر غلظت آهن (ppm45000)، آلومینیوم (ppm74000)، کروم (ppm 78/142)، کبالت (ppm 67/33) و سرب (ppm 70/56) در رودخانه رامسر، آرسنیک (ppm 45/18) و روی (ppm 3/110) در رودخانه گرگانرود، نیکل (ppm 60) در رودخانه قره‌سو و مس (ppm 63/52) در سفیدرود مشاهده گردید. همچنین کم­ترین میزان تمرکز عناصر در مغزه خلیج گرگان (K5) و عمق cm 85 با سن تقریبی1400 سال به­دست آمد که به‌عنوان مقدار زمینه استفاده شد. بر اساس شاخص درجه آلودگی  سه رودخانه بابلرود، چشمه کیله و سردآبرود در محدوده درجه آلودگی متوسط و رودخانه‌های گرگانرود، قره‌سو، تجن، رامسر و سفیدرود در محدوده آلودگی قابل‌توجه رده‌بندی شدند. بر مبنای شاخص درجه آلودگی اصلاح‌شده (mCd)، همه رودخانه‌ها در محدوده درجه آلودگی پایین تا متوسط قرار داشتند و ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﺎر آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ (PLI) در بیش­تر ایستگاه‌ها در محدوده بیش­تر از 1 (کمی آلوده تا آلوده) را نشان داد. به لحاظ سلامت بوم­شناسی (RI) رودخانه‌ها در محدوده کم ریسک قرار می‌گیرند. شاخص غنی‌شدگی (EF) در رسوبات بخش‌های دهانه‌ای نشان داد رودخانه‌های فوق احتمالاً تحت تأثیر عوامل مختلف از جمله زمین‌شناسی منطقه، شرایط آب‌وهوایی و عوامل انسانی غنی شده‌اند و آلودگی متوسط تا شدید دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Estuarine Sediments of Important Rivers in The Southern Part of The Caspian Sea

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Bagheri 1
  • Kazem Darvish Bastami 2
1 1Research Lecturer, Department of Marin Sciences, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Research Expert, Department of Marin Sciences, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the concentration of heavy metals in important rivers in the southern part of the Caspian Sea, samples were collected in three upstream points, estuary and depth of 1 to 10 m of the sea, a surface sediment sample and a core sample. Granulation analysis, organic matter assay, and determination of heavy metal concentrations were performed on each sample. The highest concentrations of iron (45000 ppm), aluminum (74000 ppm), chromium (142.78 ppm), cobalt (33.67 ppm) and lead (56.70 ppm) in Ramsar, arsenic (18.45 ppm) and Zinc (110.3 ppm) was observed in Gorganrood river, nickel (60 ppm) in Qarahsu river and copper (52.63 ppm) in Sefidrood. Moreover, the lowest concentration of elements in the core of Gorgan Bay (K5) and a depth of 85 cm with an approximate age of 1400 years was obtained, which was used as the baseline reference. Based on the contamination degree (Cd) index, three rivers of Babolrood, Cheshmeh Kileh and Sardabroud were classified in the range of moderate contamination and Gorganrood, Qarahsoo, Tajan, Ramsar and Sefidrood rivers were classified in the area of ​​significant contamination. Based on the modified contamination degree index (mCd), all rivers were in the range of low to medium contamination degree, and pollution load index (PLI) was in the range of more than 1 (slightly polluted to polluted) at most stations. In terms of ecological risk index (RI), rivers were in the low-risk range. Enrichment index (EF) in sediments of estuarine sections showed that the rivers are probably enriched by various factors such as geology, climatic conditions, and human factors having moderate to severe pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pollution
  • River
  • sediments
  • Caspian Sea
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