ارزیابی کیفیت رسوبات سطحی رودخانه تجن و تعیین سطح آلودگی بوم شناسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه تحقیقات مهندسی رودخانه و سواحل، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زمین شناسی، واحد بندرعباس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بندرعباس، ایران

3 مربی پژوهشی، گروه تحقیقات آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، ساری، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد پژوهشی، گروه تحقیقات آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، ساری، ایران

5 کارشناس ارشد پژوهشی، گروه تحقیقات مهندسی رودخانه و سواحل، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

رودخانه‌ها به‌عنوان شریان زنده حوزه آبخیز موجب حیات آن و از دیرباز تعیین‌کننده گستره و استقرار تمدن‌ها به‌ویژه در دشت‌های ساحلی بوده‌اند. رودخانه تجن در دشت ساحلی ساری به‌طور مستقیم از پیامدهای صنعتی شدن، توسعه کشاورزی و شهرها و روستاها دچار آلودگی منابع آب و رسوب شده است. هدف این پژوهش، تعیین کیفیت رسوبات سطحی رودخانه تجن در بازه شهری تا دریا بر اساس غلظت عناصر سمی As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn و آشکارسازی سطح آلودگی ناشی از آن‌ها قرار گرفت. استراتژی نمونه‌برداری مبتنی بر برداشت 25 نمونه رسوب سطحی بر اساس پراکنش کانون‌های نقطه­ای و غیرنقطه­ای آلودگی و ریخت­شناسی رودخانه‌ای بود. نمونه‌ها آماده‌سازی شده و غلظت عناصر سمی و سولفور با استفاده از دستگاه ICP-MS در وزن خشک با دقت mg/kg و درصد کربن آلی کل به­دست آمد. با استفاده از فاکتور غنی‌شدگی و استانداردهای کیفیت رسوب (ISQGs, PEL, SEL)، سطح آلودگی ناشی از عناصر سمی آشکارسازی شد. نتایج به‌خوبی بازه‌های آلوده و پاک رودخانه تجن را مشخص کردند طوری‌که جنوب‌شرق و پایین‌دست شهر ساری از شبه‌فلز سمی As و بالادست بازه شهری و مجاور خروجی پساب‌های شهرک‌های صنعتی به رودخانه از فلز سمی Cr و بالاخره کل بازه موردمطالعه از فلز سمی Ni دارای سطح مخاطره‌آمیز بودند. همچنین غنی‌شدگی Pb در رسوبات پایین‌دست بازه شهری به‌دلیل سوخت فسیلی ثابت گردید. نتایج پژوهش بر اثرگذاری آلودگی‌های شهری-روستایی (زهکشی آب‌های سطحی، زباله و نخاله ساختمانی)، پساب‌های صنعتی و کشاورزی و معادن شن و ماسه در آلودگی منابع آب و رسوب رودخانه تجن تأکید دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Quality of Surface Sediments in the Tajan River and Determining the Level of Ecological Pollution

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Gharibreza 1
  • Hamidreza Masoumi 2
  • Behnoush Jafari Gorzin 3
  • Hosein Rahimzadeh 4
  • Nezam Asgharipour Dashtbozorg 5
1 Assist. Professor, Research Department of River and Shore Engineering, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Department of Geology, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
3 Research Lecturer, Department of Watershed Management Research, Agricultural Research, Education and Natural Resources of Mazandaran Province, Sari, Iran
4 Research Expert, Department of Watershed Management Research, Agricultural Research, Education and Natural Resources of Mazandaran Province, Sari, Iran
5 Research Expert, Research Department of River and Shore Engineering, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rivers, as the living artery of the watershed, have caused its life and have long determined the extent and establishment of civilizations, especially in the coastal plains. The Tajan River in the coastal plain of Sari has been directly polluted by water and sediment resources as a result of industrialization, agricultural development, and towns, and villages. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of surface sediments of Tajan River in the city to sea range based on the concentration of toxic elements As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and to detect the level of pollution caused by them. The sampling strategy was designed to collect 25 surface sediment samples based on the distribution of point and non-point pollution sources and river morphology. Samples were conditioned and concentration of toxic elements and sulfur were measured using ICP-MS at dry weight with accuracy of mg/kg and percentage of total organic carbon. Using enrichment factor and sediment quality standards (ISQGs, PEL, SEL), the level of contamination caused by toxic elements was detected. The results well identified the polluted and clean ranges of the Tajan River. Accordingly, the southeast and downstream of the urban area of Sari were polluted by the toxic metal of As and upstream of the urban area, and adjacent to the effluent of industrial estates to the river were contaminated considerably by the toxic metal of chromium. Finally, superficial sediments of the Tajan River along the studied range were polluted significantly by the toxic metal of Ni at a risky level. Also, Pb enrichment was proven in the downstream sediments of the urban area due to fossil fuels. The research results emphasize the effect of urban-rural pollution (surface water drainage, construction waste and rubbish), industrial and agricultural effluents and sand mines on the pollution of water resources and sediment of Tajan River.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecological pollutants
  • Enrichment
  • surface sediments
  • Tajan River
  • Toxic elements
Alahabadi A. and Malvandi H. (2018). Contamination and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in surface sediments of the Tajan River, Iran. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 133, 741-749.
Ali-Beigi H., Mirzaei R. and Mahmoodi R. Z. A. (2017). Investigation of heavy metals concentration in surface sediments of Choghakhor wetland. J. Environ. Stud., 43, 149–161 [In Persian].
Ashraf M. A., Sarfaraz M., Rizwana N. and Gharibreza M. (2015). Environmental Impacts of Metallic Elements. Singapore. Springer. 434.
Berner R. A. and Raiswell R. (1984). C/S method for distinguishing freshwater from marine sedimentary rocks. Geol., 12(6), 365-368.
CBSQG. (2003). Recommendations for Use & Application Interim Guidance, in Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines, J. Dovle, Editor. Department of Natural Resources: Wisconsin. 40.
CCME. (1995). Protocol for the Derivation of Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life, E.C.G.a.S. Division, Editor. Environment Canada, Guidelines Division, Technical Secretariat of the CCME Task Group on Water Quality Guidelines: Ottawa.
Cevik F., Goksu M. Z. L., Derici O. B. and Findik O. (2009). An assessment of metal pollution in surface sediments of Seyhan dam by using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and statistical analyses,Environ. Monit. Assess., 152(1-4), 309-317.
EPA. (2001). Methods for Collection, Storage and Manipulation of Sediments for Chemical and Toxicological Analyses: Technical Manual. Environmental Protection Agency.
Fortescue J. A. C. (1992). Landscape geochemistry: retrospect and prospect. Appl. Geochem., 7(1), 1-53.
Gharibreza M. and Ashraf M. A. (2014). Applied Limnology. Tokyo, Heidelborg, New York, Dordrecht, London. Springer. 199.
Gharibreza, M., Mahdizadeh, M. and Masoumi H. (2019). Ecological risk assessment of Rozechai River sediments using sediment quality indices. Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute. P 45  [In Persian]. 
IWRM. (2011). Division and coding of watersheds and study areas of Iran. Ministry of Energy, Iran Water Recourece Management Co [In Persian].
Júnior J. B. S., Abreu I. M., Oliveira D. A. F., Hadlich G. M. and Albergaria Barbosa A. C. R. (2020). Combining geochemical and chemometric tools to assess the environmental impact of potentially toxic elements in surface sediment samples from an urban river. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 155, 111146.
Kingston H. M. and Jassie L. B. (1998). Introduction to Microwave Sample Preparation Theory and Practice. ACS Professional Reference Book Series. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Liu J., Yin P., Chen B., Gao F., Song H. and Li M. (2016). Distribution and contamination
assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Luanhe River Estuary, northwest of the Bohai Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 109, 633–639.
Loring D. L., Naes K., Dahle S., Matishov G. G. and Illind D. (1995). Arsenic, trace metals, and organic micro contaminants in sediments from the Pechora Sea, Russia.  Mar. Geol.,  128, 152-167.
Malvandi H. (2017). Preliminary evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the Zarrin Gol River sediments, Iran. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 117. 547–553.
Milačič R., Zuliani T., Vidmar J., Bergant M., Kalogianni E., Smeti E., Skoulikidis N. and Ščančar J. (2019). Potentially toxic elements in water, sediments and fish of the Evrotas River under variable water discharges. Sci. Total Environ., 648. 1087–1096.
Miller J. R. (1997). The role of fluvial geomorphic processes in the dispersal of heavy metals from mine sites. J. Geochem. Explor.,  58(2–3), 101-118.
Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi R. (2019). Evaluation of water quality and bed load sediment contamination of Qareaqhaj River to heavy metals, Kahfr Watershed, Fars province. J. Environ. Sci. Stud., 4(3). 1696-1706 [In Persian].
Nasrabadi T., Nabi Bidhendi G., Karbassi A. and Mehrdadi N. (2010). Evaluating the efficiency of sediment metal pollution indices in interpreting the pollution of Haraz River sediments, southern Caspian Sea basin. Environ. Monit. Assess., 171, 395–410.
Persaud D., Jaagumagi R. and Hayton A. (1993). Guidelines for the Protection and Management of Aquatic Sediment Quality in Ontario, O. Water Resources Branch, Editor. Ministry of the Environment: Ontario.
Rickwood P. C. (1983). Crustal abundance, distribution, and crystal chemistry of the elements; in Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry. G.J.S. Govett, Editor. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. 347-387.
Rudnick R. L. and Gao S. (2014). 4.1 - Composition of the Continental Crust, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian, Editors. Elsevier: Oxford. p. 1-51.
Suresh G., Sutharsan P., Ramasamy V. and Venkatachalapathy R. (2012). Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 84, 1–8.
Sutherland R. A. and Tolosa C. A. (2000). Multi-element analysis of road-deposited sediment in an urban drainage basin, Honolulu, Hawaii. Environ. Pollut., 110, 483-495.
Taylor S. R. (1964). Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochim. Cosmochim. Act., 28(8), 1273-1285.
Unlu S., Topcuoglu S., Alpar B., Kirbasoglu C., Yilmaz Y. Z. (2008). Heavy metal pollution in surface sediment and mussel samples in the Gulf of Gemlik, Environ. Monit. Assess., 144(1-3), 169–178.
Ustaoğlu F. and Islam S. (2020). Potential toxic elements in sediment of some rivers at Giresun, Northeast Turkey: A preliminary assessment for ecotoxicological status and health risk. Ecol. Indicat. 113, 106237.
Walkley A. and Black I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining organic carbon in soils: effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci., 37(1), 29-38.
Wernimont G.T. and Spendley W. (1985). Use of Statistics to Develop and Evaluate Analytical Methods, in AOAC Int.  Arlington, VA.