ارزیابی تحلیلی کیفیت آب استخرهای شنای مناطق جنوبی تهران در سال 1398

نوع مقاله : مقاله کوتاه

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات پالایش آب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، علوم پزشکی تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه علوم محیط‌زیست، دانشکده علوم و فناوری‌های نوین، دانشگاه تربیت دبیری شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی البرز، کرج، ایران

10.22034/jewe.2021.244176.1406

چکیده

آب مورد استفاده در استخرهای شنا همانند آب آشامیدنی باید از کیفیت لازم برخوردار باشد. عدم رعایت معیارهای فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی استخرها منجر به صدمات بهداشتی-سلامتی به شناگران می‌شود. در این پژوهش مقطعی که با رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی در تابستان 1398 انجام گرفت، 23 استخر عمومی و خصوصی واقع در جنوب شهر تهران (مناطق 18 و 19) انتخاب شد. نمونه­برداری از آب استخرها جهت تعیین شاخص‌های میکروبی شامل کلیفرم­های گرماپای و شمارش بشقابی هتروتروف (HPC)  و پارامترهای فیزیک­و­شیمیایی شامل کدورت، pH و کلر باقی­مانده انجام گرفت. سپس به هر یک از پارامترهای مورد بررسی براساس میزان اهمیت آن‌ها وزنی اختصاص داده و توسط شاخص‌های کیفیت آب، وضعیت آنها مورد تحلیل قرار داده شد. براساس یافته‌ها، شاخص‌های میکروبی کلیفرم­های گرماپای و HPC در آب استخرهای نمونه­برداری شده به­ترتیب در 74 و 1/26% موارد درسطح مطلوب قرار داشتند. در ارتباط با کدورت، pH و میزان کلر باقی­مانده به­ترتیب  1/13، 9/60 و 9/47% از نمونه‌ها وضع مطلوبی داشتند. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که آب هیچ‌یک از استخرهای نمونه­برداری شده دارای وضعیت عالی نبودند. میزان 68% استخرهای نمونه‌برداری شده از نظر کیفیت آب در وضعیت متوسط قرار داشتند. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده لزوم نمونه­برداری مستمر از آب‌ استخرها جهت بررسی کیفیت آنها و در صورت لزوم و عدم رعایت استانداردها و انجام مداخلات اعمال جریمه پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analytical Evaluation of Water Quality of Swimming Pools in The Southern Regions of Tehran in 2019

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Jahangiri Rad 1
  • Negin Hafezi 2
  • Parnia Bashardoost 3
1 Assist. Professor, Water Purification Research Center, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of New Technological Sciences, Tarbiat Dabiri University, Shahid Rajaei, Tehran, Iran
3 M. Tech. Student, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The water used in swimming pools, like drinking water, must comply with the required quality. Failure to comply with the physical, chemical and biological criteria of the pools will lead to health hurt to swimmers. In this cross-sectional paper carried out with a descriptive-analytical approach in the summer of 2019, 23 public and private pools located in the south of Tehran (districts 18 and 19) were selected. Pool water sampling was performed to determine microbial indices including thermophilic coliforms, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and physicochemical parameters including turbidity, pH and residual chlorine. Then, each of the studied parameters was assigned a weight based on their importance and their status was analyzed by water quality index. Based on the findings, the microbial indices of thermophilic coliforms and HPC in the water of the sampled pools were at the desired level in 74 and 26.1% of samples, respectively. Regarding turbidity, pH and residual chlorine content in 13.1, 60.9 and 47.9% of the samples, were at the acceptable values, respectively. The results also showed that none of the sampled water was in excellent condition and 68% of the samples were in fair condition in terms of water quality. According to the obtained results, the necessity of continuous sampling of pool water to check their quality and effective interventions and finally the imposition of fines is suggested for those which their quality is not in accordance with the standards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heterotrophic Plate Count؛ Swimming Pools
  • Tehran؛ Thermal Coliform؛ Water Quality Index
Aghaei, N., Allah Karam Zadeh, M., . (2019). Determine the motivators of participants in the swimming sporting events of the tehran functions. Organ. Behavior Manage. Sport Stud., 118-107 [In Persian].
Alivand, F. and Karimzadeh, F. ( 2015). The effect of exercise on the memory improvement: a review of cellular and molecular mechanisms. Shefaye Khatam, 3(4), 123-130 [In Persian].
Asl Hashemi, A., and Heydari, A. (2007).  Water  quality index (WQI). The First Conference of Environmental Engineering. Qom University of Medical Science, Qom, Iran [in Persian].
 
Bamir, M., and Setayesh, A. (2019). Measuring the impact of scientific advancements on sports development (case study: the thematic area of sports championship olympics). Sport. Manage. Rev., 11(55), 59-70 [In Persian].
Barna, Z., and Kádár, M. (2012). The risk of contracting infectious diseases in public swimming pools: a review. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 48, 374-386.
Beiki, A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., Saeedi, R., Sori, L., and Abtahi, M. (2016). Analytic assessment of microbial water quality in public swimming pools of Tehran in 2013. Iran. J. Health Environ., 9(1), 15-26 [In Persian].   
Bernard, A., Nickmilder, M., and Voisin, C. (2008). Outdoor swimming pools and the risks of asthma and allergies during adolescence. Europ. Respiratory J., 32(4), 979-988.
Black, A., Kinman, R., Keirn, M., Smith, J., and Harlan, W. (1970). The disinfection of swimming pool waters. I. Comparison of iodine and chlorine as swimming pool disinfectants. Am. J. Public Health Nation. Health, 60(3), 535-545.
Fathi, S. (2009). Sociological explanation student sports participation. Social Sci. Bull., 3(4), 145-173.
Florentin, A., Hautemanière, A., and Hartemann, P. (2011). Health effects of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pools. Int. J. Hygiene Environ. Health, 214(6), 461-469.
Gallè, F., Dallolio, L., Marotta, M., Raggi, A., Di Onofrio, V., Liguori, G., Toni, F. and Leoni, E. (2016). Health-related behaviors in swimming pool users: Influence of knowledge of regulations and awareness of health risks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13(5), 513.
Ghaneian, M., Ehrampoush, M., Dad, V., Amrollahi, M., Dehvari, M., and Jamshidi, B. (2012). An investigation on physicochemical and microbial water quality of swimming pools in Yazd. J. Shahid Sadoughi Univ. Med. Sci., 20(3), 340-349 [In Persian].
Hashemi, A. A., Dehghanzadeh, R., Taghipour, H., and Gasemzadeh, V. (2012). Evaluation of chemical and microbial water quality in public swimming pools and jacuzzis in Tabriz. Med. J. Tabriz Univ. Med. Sci. Health Serv., 33(6), 19-24 [In Persian].
Horton, R. K. (1965) An index number system for rating water quality. J. Water Pollut. Control Federation, 37, 300-306
Hosseini, S., Kazemi, S., and Shahbaznejad, L. (2006). The relationship between exercise and mental health of students. J. Mazandaran Univ. Med. Sci., 15, 97-104.
ISIRI. (2007). Swimming pool water–Microbiological specifications. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran(ISIRI Number 9412.).
Jafari, M. H., Rajabzadeh, A., Jafari, M. M., Doulatshahi, S., and Hatami, B. (2013). Water health indices in Kerman swimming pools, in 2011. J. Health Develop., 2(2), 128-137.
Kamarehie, B., Birjandi, M., Bazdar, M., Roshan Cheraghi, B., and Bairanvand, F. (2017). Study of physical, chemical and microbial quality of swimming pools in the Khorramabad in year 2015. J. Environ. Health Eng., 4(3), 232-224 [In Persian].
Mosaferi, M., Ahmadi, E., and Rahimi, K. (2019). Evaluation and Statistical Analysis of Parameters of Temperature, Chlorine Residual and Water pH of Tabriz Swimming Pools in Terms of Compliance with Health. Depiction of Health, 9(1), 5-13 [In Persian].
Nemery, B., Hoet, P., and Nowak, D. (2002). Indoor swimming pools, water chlorination and respiratory health. Europ. Respiratory J., 19, 790-793.
 Nikaeen, M.,  Hatamzadeh, M., Vahid Dastjerdi, M., Hassanzadeh, A.  (2009). Predictive indicators of the safety of swimming pool waters. Water Sci. and Technol., 60(12), 3101–3107.
Nikaeen, M., Hatamzadeh, M., Dastjerdi, M. V., Hassanzadeh, A., Mosavi, Z., and Rafiei, M. (2010). An investigation on physical, chemical and microbial quality of isfahan swimming pool waters based on standard indicators. J. Isfahan Med. School, 28(108), 28, 346-356 [In Persian].
Pasquarella, C., Veronesi, L., Napoli, C., Castaldi, S., Pasquarella, M. L., Saccani, E., Colucci, M. E., Auxilia, F., Gallè F., Di Onofrio, V., Tafuri, S., Signorelli, C. and Liguori, G.  (2013). Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users. Public Health, 127(7), 614-619.
Rabi, A., Khader, Y., Alkafajei, A., and Aqoulah, A. A. (2008). Sanitary conditions of public swimming pools in Amman, Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 5(3), 152-157.
Rasti, S., Assadi, M. A., Iranshahi, L., Saffari, M., Gilasi, H. R., and Pourbabaee, M. (2012). Assessment of microbial contamination and physicochemical condition of public swimming pools in Kashan, Iran. Jundishapur J. Microbiol., 5(3), 450-455
Rigas, F., Mavridou, A., and Zacharopoulos, A. (1998). Water quality of swimming pools in Athens area. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 8(3), 253-260.
Rabi, A., Khader, Y., Alkafajei, A., and Abu Aqoulah, A. (2008). Sanitary conditions of public swimming pools in Amman, Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health., 5(3), 152–157.
WHO. (2003). Guidelines for safe recreational water environments: Coastal and fresh waters (Vol. 1): World Health Organization.
WHO. (2006). guidelines for the safe use of wasterwater excreta and greywater (Vol. 1): World Health Organization.
Yang, L., Chen, X., She, Q., Cao, G., Liu, Y., Chang, V. W.-C., and Tang, C. Y. (2018). Regulation, formation, exposure, and treatment of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pool waters: A critical review. Environ. Int., 121, 1039-1057.
Yousefipoor, P., Tadibi, V., Behpoor, N., Parnow, A., Delbari, M., and Rashidi, S. (2015). Effects of aerobic exercise on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factor in type 2 diabetes patients. Med. J. Mashhad Univ. Med. Sci., 57(9), 976-984 [In Persian].
Zazouli, M., Mahdavi, Y., Moradi Golrokhi, M., & Balarak, D. (2015). Investigation of water quality health indicators of the swimming pools in Urmia in 2013. J. Rafsanjan Univ. Med. Sci., 13(11), 1033-1048  [In Persian].