ارزیابی کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی حوضه آبخیز رزن همدان با استفاده از شاخص‌های MI و PoS

نوع مقاله: مقاله اصلی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد همدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، همدان، ایران

10.22034/jewe.2020.242749.1402

چکیده

از آنجا که %90 آب­ مورد نیاز مصارف مختلف در ایران از منابع آب­ زیر­زمینی تأمین می‌شود، ارزیابی کیفی این منبع حیاتی از اهمیت به­سزایی برخوردار است. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی حوزه آبخیز رزن همدان با استفاده از شاخص‌های MI و PoS بر اساس محتوی عناصر روی، سرب، کادمیم و مس طی فصول بهار و تابستان سال 1399 انجام شد. به­این منظور، 120 نمونه آب زیرزمینی از 20 ایستگاه برداشت و پارامترهای pH، EC و دما در محل اندازه­گیری شد. محتوی عناصر در نمونه­ها نیز بعد از طی مراحل آماده‌سازی آزمایشگاهی به­وسیله دستگاه نشر اتمی خوانده شد. میانگین غلظت روی، سرب، کادمیم و مس در نمونه­های فصل بهار به‌ترتیب برابر با 3/36، 87/7، 340/0 و g/lµ 2/38؛ و در فصل تابستان نیز به‌ترتیب برابر با 3/38، 80/8، 430/0 و g/lµ 4/42 و در هر دو فصل کوچک‌تر از بیشینه رواداری WHO و سازمان حفاظت محیط‌زیست ایران برای مصارف آشامیدن و آبیاری محصولات کشاورزی بود. از طرفی میانگین مقادیر شاخص­های MI و PoS در فصل بهار با 920/0 و 360/0 به­ترتیب بیان‌گر سطح کیفی پاک و آلودگی حداقل و در فصل تابستان نیز با 05/1 و 410/0 به­ترتیب بیان‌گر سطح کیفی تحت تأثیر اندک و آلودگی حداقل بود. از اینرو، گرچه در زمان انجام مطالعه، منابع آب زیرزمینی حوزه آبخیز رزن در معرض آلودگی بیش‌تر از حد مجاز به فلزات سنگین نبود، ولی با استفاده بی‌رویه از نهاده‌های کشاورزی و به‌ویژه کودهای شیمیایی سولفات پتاسیم، سوپر فسفات تریپل و سموم شیمیایی محتوی فلزات سنگین به­وسیله کشاورزان، امکان افزایش غلظت انواع فلزات سنگین در خاک و نفوذ آن‌ها به سفره‌های آب زیرزمینی در میان‌‌مدت دور از انتظار نخواهد بود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Groundwater Quality Assessment Using MI and PoS Indices in Razan Watershed, Hamedan, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farid Shafavi 1
  • Soheil Sobhan Ardakani 2
1 M.Sc., Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Assoc. Professor, Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Since 90% of the water required for various uses in Iran is supplied from groundwater sources, qualitative evaluation of this vital resource is of great importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources in Razan watershed of Hamedan using MI and PoS indices based on the content of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu during spring and summer of 2020. For this purpose, in the middle of spring and summer, 120 groundwater samples were randomly collected from 20 stations and the parameters of pH, EC and temperature were measured in situ. The content of the elements in the samples was read using induction coupled plasma emission spectrometer after the laboratory preparation process. The mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu in the samples in spring were 36.3, 7.87, 0.340 and 38.2 μg/l, respectively; In summer it was 38.3, 8.80, 0.430, and 42.4 μg/l, respectively, and in both seasons it was less than the maximum tolerance of WHO and the Department of Environment of Iran for drinking and irrigation of agricultural products. On the other hand, the mean values ​​of MI and PoS indices in spring with 0.920 and 0.360 respectively indicated a clean quality level and minimum pollution and in summer with 1.05 and 0.410 respectively indicated low and mimimum pollution level. Therefore, although at the time of the study, the groundwater resources of the Razan watershed were not exposed to excess pollution to heavy metals, but by the indiscriminate use of agricultural inputs, especially potassium sulfate fertilizers, triple superphosphate, and chemical poisons containing heavy metals by farmers, the possibility of increasing the concentration of heavy metals in the soil and their penetration into groundwater aquifers will not be unexpected in the medium term.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Groundwater
  • heavy metals
  • qualitative assessment
  • Spatial distribution map
  • Watershed
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