Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assist. Professor, Department of Animal Sciences Education, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e-Jam, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Animal Science, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Torbat-e Jam, Iran

3 Lecturer, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Torbat-e Jam Faculty of Medical Sciences, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

4 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The possibility of contamination of surface waters by the safranin dye and its consumption by ruminants is inevitable subsequently; hence the effect of using safranin as a water pollutant with low-cost absorbents on fermentation activities of ruminal microorganisms was investigated in a culture medium. Safranin, at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ppm) with processed sodium bentonite (SB) and ash prepared from Cucumis Melo L. skin, each at three levels (0 and 4 and 8 mg) were used with a factorial experiment 3×2×3 in a laboratory medium. Removal effect of safranin in water was also investigated at 3 and 24 h incubation. The maximum removal rate of safranin from water (5 ppm) for SB and melon peel ash was determined 90 and 80%, respectively at 24 h incubation. Removal percentage of safranin by two adsorbents, decreased when safranin increased from 5 to 10 ppm. In response to increasing the safranin levels from 0 to 10 ppm in the culture medium, potential gas production, and cumulative gas production after 12, 24 and 48 h incubation, ME, SCFA, NEl, MPY, and OMD decreased significantly compared to the control group. The gas production potential decreased when levels of both adsorbents increased from 2 to 4%. The amounts of TVFA and ammonia nitrogen in the culture media decreased when safranin concentration increased from 0 to 5 ppm. Generally, both adsorbents were able to remove safranin from the water, efficiency. The SB also appears to be more effective in eliminating of safranin rather than ash.


Main Subjects

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