Document Type : Review Paper


1 M.Sc., Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 B.Sc., Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical- Petroleum & Gas Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Due to the environmental hazards, nitrogenous wastewater treatment is essential and important. In recent decades, novel biological processes such as Annamox and SHARON have developed which are cheaper and more effective compared to conventional processes. In the present study, several significant biological parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, salt concentration, nitrite concentration and sludge retention time (SRT) were investigated. The results showed that SHARON process lowered the need for carbon source while Annamox process without carbon source requirement, was implemented in anaerobic condition. The optimum pH for Annamox process was reported 6.7-8.3. Nitrite and salt concentrations were important control parameters to prevent Annamox bacterial activity. Desired temperature for the bacterial growth was 30-40℃  for Annamox and higher than 25℃ for SHARON, and process efficiencies were not directly related to SRT. Overall, the new biological processes of nitrogen removal were described promising due to the decrease in need for aeration and carbon source and are suitable alternatives for conventional processes.


Main Subjects

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