Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran

2 Assoc. Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran

3 Assisst. Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasooj University, Yasooj, Iran

4 Lecturer, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran


Soil contamination produced by Cd and Pb released from vehicles is a serious environmental problem. Lead as a result of using leaded petrol fuels and cadmium in the car tire is introduced into the environment through vehicle depreciation and traffic. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metals such as Pb and Cd at the roadside soils of Zabol - Zahedan route. 252 soil samples were taken from a depth of 0 -20 cm and the concentration of total lead and cadmium metals, physicochemical properties of soil including pH, EC and organic matter were measured. The contamination assessment of soil was done through using enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. Metals’ spatial distribution maps for heavy metals concentration were used kriging methods. The mean concentration at 0, 50 and 100 meters, respectively, was 2.12, 2.03 and 2 mg kg-1 for lead, which is less than the global mean (25 mg kg-1) for this metal, and respectively 0.21, 0.21 and 0.20 mg kg-1 for cadmium, which was lower than the global average (0.53 mg kg-1). The results of the geospatial analysis showed that both variables were anisotropic and the exponential model for lead and Gaussian model for cadmium had the best fit.
Interpolation map's analysis showed that the cadmium and lead has geological and human origins. In fact, these metals naturally exist in soils, but human activity has caused the accumulation of these metals in the soil.


Main Subjects

Abaspour A., Kalbasi M., Hajrasoliha Sh. and Golchin A. (2005). Investigation of contamination of some Iranian agricultural soils to cadmium and lead. 9th Iranian Soil Science Congress, Tehran University, [In Persian].
Afshari A., Khademi H. and Delavar M. A. (2016). Heavy metals contamination assessment in soils of different land uses in central district of Zanjan province using contamination factor. Water Soil Sci., 25(4), 41-52 [In Persian].
Akan J. C., Audu S. I., Zakari M. and Ogugbuaja V. O. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals, pH, organic matter and organic carbon in roadside soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. J. Environ. Prot., 4, 618-628.
Amini M., Afyuni M. and Khademi, H. (2007). Modeling cadmium and lead balance in agricultural lands of Isfahan region, central Iran.  J. Water Soil Sci., 10(4), 77-90 [In Persian].
Arfania H. and Asadzadeh F. (2016). Heavy metals bio-availability (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, and Pb) in sediments of Abshinehriver. J. Soil Manag. Sustain. Product. 4(5), 133-46 [In Persian].
Chen C., Kao W., Chen C. M. and Dong C. F. (2007). Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsinung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere, 66, 14311440.
Chen M., Ma L. Q. and Harris W. G. (1999). Baseline concentrations of 15 trace elements in Florida surface soils. J. Environ. Qual., 28(4), 1173-1181.
Delijani F., Kazemi Gh., Parvinnia M. and Khakshour M. (2009). Enrichment and distribution of heavy metals in soils of South Pars Special Economic Region (Assaluyeh). Eighth International Congress on Civil Engineering, Shiraz University [In Persian].
Dragović R., Gajić B., Dragović S., Đorđević M., Đorđević M. and Mihailović N. (2014). Assessment of the impact of geographical factors on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils around the steel production facility in Smederevo (Serbia). J. Clean. Product., 84, 550-562.
Erfanmanesh M. and Afyuni M. (2002). Environmental pollution water, soil and air. Arkan Publication, 318 pp [In Persian].
Gee G. W. and Bauder J. W. (1986). Particle size analysis. p. 383-411. In Klute A. (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. 2nd edition. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison.
Gupta P. K. (2000). Soil, plant, water and fertilizer analysis. Agrobios, New Delhi, India, 438 pp.
Hu K., Zhang F., Li H., Huang F. and Li B. G. (2006). Spatial patterns of soil heavy metals in urban-rural transition zone of Beijing. Pedosphere, 16, 690-698.
                                                                                                                                                  Jiachun S., Haizhen W., Jianming X., Jianjun W., Xingmei L. and Haiping Z. (2007). Spatial distribution of heavy metal in soil: A case study of changing, China. Environ Geol., 52, 1-10.
Kabata A. and Pendias H. (2001). Trace elements in soils and planets. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, 413 pp
Karimi Nezhad J., Behrouzi Rad B. and Hussini Alhashemi A. (2016). Investigating pollution caused by agricultural activities in Shadegan Marsh using birds index. Green Wave, 14(55), 3-10. [In Persian].
Khaledan Sh., Taghavi L. and Paykanpour Fard P. (2017). Investigation of spatial variations of lead and cadmium dispersion using the techniques of geometric statistics and GIS. J. Health Environ. 10(2), 151-164. [In Persian].
Li X., Liu L., Wang Y., Luo G., Chen X. and Yang X. (2015). Heavy metal contamination of urban soil in an old industrial city (Shenyang) in Northeast China. Geoderma, 192, 50-58.
Loeppert R. H. and Suarez D. L. (1996). Carbonate and gypsum. p. 437-474. In Sparks D. L. (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis. SSSA, Madison.
Mohamadi J. (2006). Pedometrics. Pelk Publishing House. 240 pp [In Persian].
Movahedi Rad Z. (2007). Investigation of spatial variations of zinc, lead, nickel and cadmium in soils in Qom province. M.Sc. Thesis of Soil Science. Faculty of Agriculture. Isfahan University of Technology, 150 pp [In Persian].
Muller G. (1979).  Schwermetalle in den sediments des rheins: Veranderungen seit 1971. Umschau, 79, 778-783.
Naser H. M., Sultana S. Gomes R. and Noor S. (2012). Heavy metal pollution of soil and vegetable grown near roadside at Gazipur. Bangladesh J. Agri. Res., 37(1), 9-17.
Nelson D. W. and Sommers L.E. (1996). Carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. p. 9611010. In Sparks D. L. (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis. SSSA, Madison.
Parsafar N., Marofi S., Rahimi G. and Marofi H. (2015). Assessment of pollution index (PI) of Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb in the soil irrigated with municipal wastewater. Water Soil Sci., 25(1), 1-12 [In Persian].
Rey R. D., Fierros F. D. and Barral M. T. (2009). Normalization strategies for river bed sediments: A graphical approach. Micro. chemical J., 91, 253-263.
Sistani N., Moin al-Dini M. and Khorasani N. (2017). Pollution of heavy metals in adjacent soils of steel industry. J. Health Environ., 10(2), 75-86 [In Persian].
Shahbazi A., Sofyanian A., Afraz R. and Khodakarami L. (2011). Investigation of spatial distribution of heavy metals of cadmium, copper and lead in soil and determination of the origin of these metals in Nahavand. J. Remote Sens. GIS Nat. Resour. Sci., 2(2), 97-109 [In Persian].
Shi G., Chen Z., Xu S., Zhang J., Wang L., Bi C. and Teng J. (2008). Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China. Environ. Pollut., 156, 251-260.
Wang S. Y., Yu T. Q., Wang J. L., Yang L., Yang K. and Lu P. (2008). Preliminary study on spatial variability and distribution of soil available microelements in Pinggu County. Beijing. China. Agri. Sci., 7, 1235-1244.
Yalcin M. G., Battaloglu R. and Ilhan S. (2007). Heavy metal sources in Sultan Marsh and its neighborhood, Kayseri, Turkey. Environ Geol., 53, 399-415.
Yang P., Mao R., Shao H. and Gao Y. (2009). An investigation on the distribution of eight hazardous heavy metals in the suburban farmland of China. J. Hazard. Mater., 167(13), 1246- 1251.