آبیاری قطره‌ای، روشی موثر برای بهبود شاخص‌های کمی و کیفی برگ سبز چای در شرایط تنش آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، پژوهشکده چای، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 استادیار، پژوهشکده چای، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

3 محقق، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف تیمار آبیاری قطره‌ای بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت برگ سبز چای طی دوره خشکی بود. این پژوهش برای نخستین بار طی سال‌های 1396 و 1397 در باغ چایی در منطقه‌ بازکیاگوراب لاهیجان در استان گیلان اجرا شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد‌شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمار آبیاری شامل پنج سطح صفر، 25، 50، 75 و 100% نیاز آبیاری در نظر گرفته شد. برنامه‌ی آبیاری قطره‌ای در دوره‌ی تنش آبی به‌صورت هفته‌ای دو بار بر اساس پایش رطوبت خاک در عمق توسعه‌ی ریشه‌ها انجام گرفت. آبیاری کامل به میزان 2225 و m3/ha 1610 در دو سال آزمایش باعث شد تا تولید شاخساره قابل‌برداشت در فصل تابستان به‌ترتیب 162 و 153% نسبت به سطح بدون آبیاری افزایش داشته باشد. افزایش تنش آبی در سطوح آبیاری ناقص منجر به افزایش ماده جامد (خشبی شدن) شاخساره‌های چای شد. برعکس، با افزایش میزان آب آبیاری در سامانه آبیاری قطره‌ای، وزن‌تر شاخساره‌ها افزایش پیدا کرد. میانگین دوسالانه بیش­ترین میزان عملکرد برگ سبز چای معادل kg/ha 9125 با تأمین 100% نیاز آبیاری و کم­ترین میزان عملکرد معادل kg/ha 3468 از سطح بدون آبیاری به‌دست آمد. همچنین بهبود خصوصیات کیفی چای مانند پلی‌فنل کل، کافئین، خاکستر کل و درصد نیتروژن شاخساره با انجام آبیاری کامل در سامانه‌ی قطره‌ای مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Drip Irrigation, an Effective Method to Improve the Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Tea Green Leaves in Water Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kourosh Majd Salimi 1
  • Reza Azadi Gonbad 2
  • Shahrzad Shaigan 3
1 Research Instructor, Tea Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Tea Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran
3 Researcher, Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center., Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Green tea leaves are harvested in Iran from early May to November. In some months (mid-June to early September), the amount of rainfall is less than the water requirement of tea plants and the amount and quality of the product is greatly reduced due to water stress, which threatens the livelihood of farmers and the region's economy. Therefore, supplying the required water of the tea plant by using supplementary irrigation and correct principles of operation is the most important issue in increasing the quantity, quality and marketability of the tea product and its economic efficiency. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of different levels of drip irrigation treatment on yield, yield components and quality of green tea leaves during the dry period.
Materials and Methods: This research was conducted for the first time in 2017-2018 in tea plantation in Bazkiagoorab region, Lahijan (Guilan Province). The experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete block design. Irrigation treatments considered included five levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 water requirement percentage. In the irrigation system of this research, on-line drippers (surface drip irrigation) of Netafim company with design flow rate of 4 l/hr were used. Sub-pipes (laterals) approximately 5 m long were placed in the middle of every two rows of tea plants throughout the experimental plot (except plots without irrigation). Seven drippers with a distance of 0.7 m (one dripper per plant) were installed on 16 mm laterals. Drip irrigation scheduling in water stress period was twice a week based on soil moisture monitoring during growth period by fertigation at plant root depth. In order to fertilize with irrigation water (fertigation), fertilizer solution was prepared and it entered the manifold pipes through injection in each plot. For non-irrigated treatment, nitrogen fertilizer was mixed with the soil in two equal installments of urea fertilizer in two application (first mid of May and first mid of July) and was added to the soil according to the custom of tea growing region. Yield during growth period and yield components and some quality characteristics of green tea leaves during water stress period were measured.
Results: Full irrigation of 2225 and 1610 m3/ha in two years of experiment caused the production of harvestable shoots in summer to be increased by 162 and 153 percent, respectively, as compared to rainfed condition. Increased water stress at deficit irrigation levels led to increase dry matter (semi hard) of tea shoots. Conversely, as the amount of irrigation water in drip irrigation system increased, the fresh weight of shoots increased. Biennial average of the highest yield of green tea leaves (9125 kg/ha) was obtained by providing 100% irrigation requirement and the lowest yield (3468 kg/ha) was obtained from no irrigation level. Improvement of tea quality characteristics such as total polyphenols, caffeine, total ash and nitrogen percentage of shoots was also observed by full irrigation in drip system.
Conclusion: Due to the significant increase in yield and quality improvement of green tea leaves due to the application of drip irrigation system in the period of water stress in tea growing region of Iran, it seems to recommend and promote the use of drip irrigation system in tea plantations, especially in sloping lands, to get rid of the problem of reducing production in water stress condition and improving the living condition of the beneficiaries of this product.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Localized irrigation
  • soil moisture
  • Tea quality
  • Tea yield
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