آبیاری قطره‌ای، روشی موثر برای بهبود شاخص‌های کمی و کیفی برگ سبز چای در شرایط تنش آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، پژوهشکده چای، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

2 استادیار، پژوهشکده چای، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان، ایران

3 محقق، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف تیمار آبیاری قطره‌ای بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت برگ سبز چای طی دوره خشکی بود. این پژوهش برای نخستین بار طی سال‌های 1396 و 1397 در باغ چایی در منطقه‌ بازکیاگوراب لاهیجان در استان گیلان اجرا شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد‌شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمار آبیاری شامل پنج سطح صفر، 25، 50، 75 و 100% نیاز آبیاری در نظر گرفته شد. برنامه‌ی آبیاری قطره‌ای در دوره‌ی تنش آبی به‌صورت هفته‌ای دو بار بر اساس پایش رطوبت خاک در عمق توسعه‌ی ریشه‌ها انجام گرفت. آبیاری کامل به میزان 2225 و m3/ha 1610 در دو سال آزمایش باعث شد تا تولید شاخساره قابل‌برداشت در فصل تابستان به‌ترتیب 162 و 153% نسبت به سطح بدون آبیاری افزایش داشته باشد. افزایش تنش آبی در سطوح آبیاری ناقص منجر به افزایش ماده جامد (خشبی شدن) شاخساره‌های چای شد. برعکس، با افزایش میزان آب آبیاری در سامانه آبیاری قطره‌ای، وزن‌تر شاخساره‌ها افزایش پیدا کرد. میانگین دوسالانه بیش­ترین میزان عملکرد برگ سبز چای معادل kg/ha 9125 با تأمین 100% نیاز آبیاری و کم­ترین میزان عملکرد معادل kg/ha 3468 از سطح بدون آبیاری به‌دست آمد. همچنین بهبود خصوصیات کیفی چای مانند پلی‌فنل کل، کافئین، خاکستر کل و درصد نیتروژن شاخساره با انجام آبیاری کامل در سامانه‌ی قطره‌ای مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Drip Irrigation, an Effective Method to Improve the Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Tea Green Leaves in Water Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kourosh Majd Salimi 1
  • Reza Azadi Gonbad 2
  • Shahrzad Shaigan 3
1 Research Instructor, Tea Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Tea Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Lahijan, Iran
3 Researcher, Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center., Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of drip irrigation treatment on yield, yield components and quality of green tea leaves during drought. This research was conducted for the first time during 2017 and 2018 in the tea garden in Bazkiagorab area of ​​Lahijan in Gilan province. The experiment was performed as split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation treatment considered was consisted of five levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of irrigation needs. Drip irrigation program in the period of water stress was carried out twice a week based on monitoring soil moisture at the depth of root development. Full irrigation of 2225 and 1610 m3/ha in two successive years of experiment caused the production of harvestable shoots in summer to increase by 162 and 153%, respectively, compared with the area without irrigation. Increased water stress at incomplete irrigation levels led to an increase in solids (woodiness) of tea shoots. Conversely, as the amount of irrigation water in the drip irrigation system increased, the weight of the shoots increased. The biennial average of the highest yield of green tea leaves was equal to 9125 kg/ha with 100% irrigation requirement and the lowest yield of 3468 kg/ha was obtained from the area without irrigation. Improvement of tea quality characteristics such as total polyphenols, caffeine, total ash and nitrogen percentage of shoots was also observed by complete irrigation in the drip system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • Drought
  • soil moisture
  • Tea quality
  • Tea yield
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