Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assoc. Professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran

2 M.Sc. Student, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran

3 Assist. Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Fasa, Fasa, Iran

4 Assist. Professor, Department of Environmental Science, School of Natural Resources & Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


Oil contaminated soil is a vital threat to the environment. The aim of the present research was to investigate the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and heavy metals of nickel and vanadium reduction using Prosopis juliflora, under different treatments of biochar and compost in pots. One-year-old P. juliflora seedlings were planted in pots containing oil sludge. The pots included 1 and 2% of compost and biochar. Furthermore, two control treatments including with and without P. juliflora were used for the study. This study was conducted in the complete randomized plot sampling with three replications. After six months, soil samples were taken from the pots and transferred to the laboratory. Then, the concentration of TPH, nickel, and vanadium was determined. The results indicated that the least TPH belonged to the compost 2% treatment (10.63 ppm), which was significantly different compared with other studied treatments. The highest value belonged to the control treatment without P. juliflora (22.57 ppm). The highest value of vanadium belonged to the control treatment (69.50 mg/kg). Compost 2% had the least values of vanadium (47.66 mg/kg). Comparison between treatments showed no significant differences among compost 1% (117.17 mg/kg), compost 2% (118.00 mg/kg), and biochar 2% (116.67 mg/kg). The highest reduction of nickel was observed within the mentioned treatments. Therefore, using biochar and compost can improve the phytoremediation capacity of P. juliflora.


Main Subjects

Ahmadi, B., (2012). The role of heavy metals in human health. July 20 2012. available at: Resources heavy metals.
Alboebadi, H., Moradi, M., and Jahantab, E., (2018). Effect of Biochar and Municipal Waste Compost on Ziziphus Spina-Christi (L.) Willd heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons phytoremediation. J. Plant Eco. Cons., 6(12), 261-277. [In Persian].
Anigboro, A. and Nyerhovwo, J., (2008). Effect of crude oil on invertase and amylase activities in cassava leaf extract and germinating cowpea seedlings. A. J. Biol. Sci., 1(1), 56-60.
Baek, K. H., Kim, H. S., Oh, H. M., Yoon, B. D., Kim, J. and Lee, I. S., (2005). Effect of crude oil, oil components and bioremediation on plant growth. J. Environ., 40, 88-97.
Baek, K. H., Kim, H. S., Oh, H. M., Yoon, B. D., Kim, J., and Lee, I. S., (2004). Effects of crude oil, oil components, and bioremediation on plant growth. J. Environ. Sci. Health A., 39(9), 2465-2472.‏
Basalatpour, A., Hajabbasi, M. A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H. and Dorostkar, V., (2011). Landfarming process effects on some biological and chemical properties of petroleum contaminated soils. Soil Sediment Contam., 20(2), 234-248.
Beesley, L., Moreno-Jimenez, E. and Gomez-Eyles, J. O., (2010). Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ. Pollut., 1-6.
Chen, M., Xu, P., Zeng, G. M., Yang, C. P., Huang, D. L. and Zhang, J. C., (2015). Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: applications, microbes and future research needs. Biotechnol. Adv., 33, 745–755.
Chupakhina, G. N. and Maslennikov, P. V. (2004). Plant adaptation toil stress. Russ. J. Ecol., 35, 290-295.
Dobler, R., Saner, M. and Bachofen, R., (2000). Population changes of soil microbial communities induced by hydrocarbon and heavy metal contamination. Bioremediat. J., 4, 41-56.
Etim, E. (2012). Phytoremediation and its mechanisms: A review. Int. J. Environ. Bioenergy., 2(3), 120-36.
Fayyaz, P. and Bagheripour, A., (2016). Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species. Iran. J. Appl. Ecol., 5(16), 31-42. [In Persian]
Gaur, A. and Adholeya, A. (2004). Prospects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Curr. Sci., 86, 528-534.
Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. and Zech, W., (2002). Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils., 35, 219–230.
Hutchinson, S. L., Schwab, A. P. and Banks, M. K., (2001). Phytoremediation of aged petroleum sludge: effect of irrigation techniques and scheduling. Environ. Qual., 30, 1516-1522.
Jafari, M., Ebrahimi, S. and Movahed Naeini, S., (2013). Simultaneous effect of municipal solid waste compost and some fertilizers on biodegradation of oil-contaminated soils. J. Soil. Water. Reso. Conserv., 2(3), 43-56. [In Persian]
Jafari, M., Jahantab, E. and Moameri, M., (2020). Investigation of Remediation of Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals Using Helianthus Annuus L. Plant. J. of Environ. Sci. Tech., 22(7), 1-14. [In Persian]
Jahantab, A., Jafari, M., Motasharezadeh, B., Tavili, A. and Zargham, N., (2016a). Evaluation of the phyto -remediation of rangeland plants in soils contaminated with petroleum, with an emphasis on heavy metal Ni. Environ. Sci., 14(3), 107-122. [In Persian]
Jahantab, E., Jafari, M., Motasharezadeh, B., Tavili, A. and Zargham, N., (2016b) Evaluation of tolerant plants species to heavy metals in oil polluted region (case study: Pazanan Gachsaran). J. Range. Sci., 10(4), 409-425. [In Persian]
Jahantab, E., Jafari, M., Motesharezadeh, B., Tavili, A. and Zargham, N., (2018). Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils using Stipagrostis plumosa, Calotropis procera L., and Medicago sativa under Different Organic Amendment Treatments. Ecopersia, 6(2), 101-109.
Jingchun Tang, W. Z., (2013). Characteristics of biochar and its application in remediation of contaminated soil. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 116(6), 653-659.
Kathi, S. and Khan, A. (2011). Phytoremediation approaches to PAH contaminated soil. Indian J. Sci. Technol., 4(1), 56-63.
Khan, A. G. (2005). Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal contaminated soils in phytoremediation. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 18(4), 355-364.
Khan, S., Afzal, M., Igbal, S. and Khan, M. Q., (2013). Plant–bacteria partnerships for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 90(4), 1317–1332.
Koolivand, A., Rajaei, M. S., Ghanadzadeh, M. J., Saeedi, R., Abtahi, H. and Godini, K., (2017). Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge byusing a two-stage composting system: effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition. Bioresour. Technol., 235, 240-249.
Kumar, S. P., Prince, W. S. P. M., Sivakumar, S. and Subbhuraam, C. V., (2005). Prosopis juliflora a green solution to decontaminate heavy metal (Cu and Cd) contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 60, 1493-1496.
Lehmann, J., Silva Jr, S. J. P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W. and Glaser, B., (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant Soil, 249, 343–357.
Meudec, A., Poupart, N., Dussauze, J. and Deslandes, E., (2007). Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis. J. Sci. Total Environ., 381, 146-156.
Naderi, M. R., Danesh-Shahraki, A. and Naderi, R. (2012). A review on Phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. Hum. Environ., 23, 35-49. [In Persian]
Naseri, S., Mesdaghinia, A., Omrani, Gh., Rezaei, S., Nadafi, K., Yonesian, M. and Arbabi, M. (2005). Removal of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHS from soils contaminated with petroleum compounds by microbial consortium. Final report of the research project. Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Ogbonnaya, U. and Semple, K. (2013). Impact of Biochar on Organic Contaminants in Soil: A Tool for Mitigating Risk? Agron., 3, 349-375.
Ogundiran, M., Lawal, O. and Adejumo, S., (2015). Stabilisation of Pb in Pb Smelting Slag-Contaminated Soil by Compost-Modified Biochars and Their Effects on Maize Plant Growth. J. Environ. Prot. Sci., 6, 771-780.
Park, J.H., Choppala, G. K., Bolan, N. S., Chung, J. W. and Chuasavathi, T., (2011). Biochar reduces the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Plant Soil, 348, 439–451.
Paz-Ferreiro, J., Lu H., Fu, S., Mendez, A and Gasco, G. (2014). Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review. Solid Earth, 5: 65–75.
Peng S., Zhou Cai, Z. and Zhang, Z., (2009). Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis jalapa L. in greenhouse plot experiment. J. Hazard. Mater., 168, 1496-1490.
Pizarro-Tobias, P., (2015) Field trial on removal of petroleum-hydrocarbon pollutants using a microbial consortium for bioremediation and rhizoremediation. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 7(1), 85–94.
Pulford, I. and Watson, C., (2003). Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated land by tree a review. J. Environ. Int., 29, 529-40.
Randolph, P., Bansode, B. R. R., Hassan, O. A., Rehrah, D. J., Ravella, R. M., Reddy, R., Watts, D. W., Novak, J. M. and Ahmedna, M., (2017). Effect of biochars produced from solid organic municipal waste on soil quality parameters. Environ. Manage., 192, 271-280.
Tan, X., Liu, Y., Zeng, G., Wang, X., Hu, X., Gu, Y. and Yang, Z. (2015). Application of biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere, 125, 70-85.
Tavili, A., Jahantab, E., Jafari, M., Motesharezadeh, B., Zargham, N. and Saffari Aman, M., (2019). Assessment of TPH and nickel contents associated with tolerant native plants in petroleum-polluted area of Gachsaran, Iran. Arab. J. Geosci., 12, 325.
Tavili, A., Jahantab, E., Jafari, M., Motesharezadeh, B. and Zargham, N. (2018). Remediation of contaminated soils with heavy metal of Pb using rangelands plants in the greenhouse condition. J. Plant Res., 31(3), 583-593.
Yateem, A. (2013). Rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated sites: a perspective on the Gulf War environmental catastrophe on the State of Kuwait. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 20(1), 100–107
Zhou, R., Liu, X., Luo, Y., Zhou, Y., Wei, J., Chen, A., Tang, L., Wu, H., Deng, Y., Zhang, F. and Wang, Y. (2017). Remediation of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd-contaminated agricultural soil using a combined red mud and compost amendment. Int. Biodeter. Biodegradation., 118, 73-81.