تأثیر سامانه‌های آبیاری ‌تحت‌فشار بر تغییر برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

چکیده

در سالیان اخیر به­دلیل محدودیت منابع آب در دشت ملایر، روش‌های آبیاری از سطحی به تحت‌فشار در حال تغییر است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات کیفیت خاک به دلیل تغییر روش آبیاری بود. در این پژوهش 14 مزرعه و دو باغ مجهز به سامانه‌ی آبیاری بارانی و قطره‌ای انتخاب و تغییرات کیفی خاک آن‌ها نسبت به مقادیر متناظر قبل از اجرا با آزمون‌ آماری من‌ویتنی ارزیابی شد. پارامترهای کیفی خاک شامل اسیدیته (pH)، نیتروژن (N)، فسفر (P)، مواد آلی (C)، هدایت الکتریکی املاح (ECe) و پتاسیم (K) بود. نقشه‌ پهنه‌بندی پارامترهای کیفی موردبررسی نیز با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Arc GIS در قبل و بعد از اجرای سامانه‌های آبیاری تحت‌فشار تهیه شد. نتایج نشان داد تفاوت بین مقادیر پارامترهای موردبررسی قبل و بعد از اجرای سامانه‌های آبیاری تحت‌فشار شامل ECe، pH و C در سطح احتمال 5% غیرمعنی‌دار و تغییرات P، K و N معنی‌دار بود. نتایج اندازه‌گیری پارامترهای کیفی بیان‌گر افزایش میانگین مقادیر pH، N، P و C به‌ترتیب از 72/7 به 80/7، 067/0 به mg/kg 121/0، 01/11 به mg/kg 95/17 و 68/0 به 80/0% نسبت به قبل از اجرای سامانه‌های آبیاری تحت‌فشار بود. اما مقادیر ECe و K خاک مزارع به‌ترتیب از 06/1 به dS/m 53/0 و 1/255 به mg/kg 156 کاهش نشان داد. نتایج نشان داد تغییر روش آبیاری باعث کاهش پتاسیم و افزایش فسفر و نیتروژن خاک شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Pressurized Irrigation Systems on Changing Some of the Soil Chemical Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Zare Abyaneh 1
  • Rasul Yousefi 2
  • Mehdi Jovzi 3
  • Abbas Abbasi 4
  • Masoud Shakarami 5
1 Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Department of Soil and Water Research, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
4 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
5 Assist. Prof., Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, due to limited water resources in Malayer plain, irrigation methods are changing from surface to under pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in soil quality due to changes in irrigation methods. For this purpose, 14 farms and 2 orchards equipped with sprinkler and drip irrigation system were selected and their soil quality changes compared with the corresponding values before implementation were evaluated by Mann-Whitney statistical test. Soil quality parameters included acidity (pH), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), organic matter (C), electrical conductivity of solutes (ECe) and potassium (K). The zoning map of the studied quality parameters was also prepared using ArcGIS software before and after the implementation of pressurized irrigation systems. The results showed that the difference between the values of the studied parameters before and after the implementation of pressurized irrigation systems including ECe, pH and C were non-significant at the level of 5% probability and the changes of P, K and N were significant. The results of measuring the qualitative parameters showed an increase in the mean values of pH, N, P and C from 7.72 to 7.80, 0.067 to 0.121 mg/kg, 11.01 to 17.95 mg/kg and 0.68 to 0.80%, respectively, compared with before the implementation of pressurized irrigation systems. However, ECe and K values of field soils decreased from 1.06 to 0.53 dS/m and 255.1 to 156 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that changing the irrigation method reduced potassium and increased soil phosphorus and nitrogen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leaching
  • Mann-Whitney test
  • Soil salinity
  • Sprinkler Irrigation
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