بررسی پتانسیل گیاه‌پالایی و عملکرد گیاه آفتابگردان زینتی تحت تاثیر لجن فاضلاب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بسیاری از گیاهان زینتی توانایی استخراج فلزات سمی از خاک را داشته و قادرند مقادیر بالایی از فلزات را در اندام­های خود ذخیره کنند و از آنجایی‌که وارد زنجیره غذایی انسان نمی­شوند، فاقد مشکلات سلامتی برای انسان می­باشند. این پژوهش با هدف تعیین عملکرد گیاه آفتابگردان زینتی و بررسی توانایی گیاه­پالایی فلزات سنگین موجود در خاک توسط آن انجام ‌شد. این پژوهش با سه سطح لجن مربوط به تصفیه­خانه فاضلاب جنوب تهران، شامل 0، 10 و 20% وزنی خاک، در سه تکرار و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کاملاً تصادفی روی گیاه آفتابگردان زینتی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد لجن فاضلاب سبب افزایش معنی­دار غلظت فلزات سنگین و عملکرد تر و خشک بخش­های مختلف گل در گیاه شد. استفاده از لجن فاضلاب به میزان 20% وزنی خاک، از نظر شاخص رشد مانند وزن تر (ریشه و اندام هوایی به­ترتیب 03 /12 و g 56/48)، وزن خشک (ریشه و اندام هوایی به­ترتیب 97/1 و g 69/8)، ، قطر ساقه (cm 78/0)، ارتفاع ساقه (cm 4/19) و قطر گل (cm 44/7) و  نیز غلظت فلزات سنگین سرب (ریشه و اندام هوایی به­ترتیب  09/9 و mg/kg  35/4)، نیکل (ریشه و اندام هوایی به­ترتیب  65/3 و mg/kg  04/2) و کادمیوم (ریشه و اندام هوایی به­ترتیب  598/0 و mg/kg  364/0)، مناسب­تر بود. با توجه به فاکتور تجمع زیستی ریشه بالای یک و فاکتور انتقال کم­تر از یک، گیاه آفتابگردان زینتی یک گیاه مناسب برای جذب و انتقال فلزات سنگین بوده که با سازوکاری تثبیت گیاهی، از ورود فلزات سنگین به بخش­های هوایی جلوگیری می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Phytoremediation Potential and Yield of Helianthus annuus under Sewage Sludge

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Mohammadian 1
  • Seyyed Ebrahim Hashemi Garmdareh 2
  • Maryam Varavipour 3
1 M. Sc. Alumni, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Collage of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Collage of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assoc. Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Collage of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Many ornamental plants have the ability to extract toxic metals from the soil and are able to store large amounts of metals in their organs with no health problems for humans as they do not enter the human food chain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sewage sludge application on the performance of Helianthus annuus and to investigate its phytoremediation ability for heavy metals (Pb, Ni and Cd) in soil. This study was carried out with three levels of sewage sludge related to southern Tehran wastewater treatment plant, including 0, 10 and 20 percent by weight of soil in three replications in a completely randomized block design on Helianthus annuus. The results showed that the application of sewage sludge caused a significant increase in the concentration of heavy metals and wet and dry yield of different parts of the flower in the plant. Application of sewage sludge at 20 percent by weight of soil was more suitable for growth index and accumulation of heavy metals in plant in terms of growth index such as wet weight (root 12.03 g and shoot 48.56 g), dry weight (root 1.97 g and shoot 8.69 g), stem diameter (0.78 cm), stem height (19.4 cm) and flower diameter (7.44 cm) as well as concentration of heavy metals Pb (root and shoot 9.09 and 4.35 mg/kg respectively), Ni (root and shoot 3.65 and 2.04 mg/kg respectively) and Cd (root and shoot 0.598 and 0.364 mg/kg respectively). Due to root bioaccumulation factor above 1 and transfer factor less than 1, Helianthus annuus is a plant suitable for the uptake and transfer of heavy metals, which prevents the entry of heavy metals into the shoot parts by a plant stabilization mechanism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioaccumulation factor
  • heavy metals
  • Helianthus annuus
  • Phytoremediation
  • Translocation factor
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