مقایسه شاخص‌های خشکسالی مبتنی بر بارندگی با شاخص‌های مبتنی بر تبخیر و تعرق به‌منظور تعیین خشکسالی هواشناسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل ، زابل، ایران

چکیده

دستگاه­های پایش از ابزارهای لازم برای مدیریت خشکسالی هستند. با این سامانه­ها است که می­توان از شدت و توسعه مکانی خشکسالی آگاهی یافت که معمولاً با شاخص­های خشکسالی این مهم به انجام می­رسد. در پژوهش حاضر از شاخص­های RAI، DPI، PN، SIAP، SPEI، و SPI برای بیان کمی خشکسالی و پهنه­بندی آن در ده ایستگاه هواشناسی منتخب کشور با اقلیم متفاوت استفاده شد. ابتدا داده­های هواشناسی بارندگی از سال 1980 تا 2013 از ایستگاه­­های منتخب جمع­آوری شد. سپس هر یک از شاخص­ها محاسبه و شدت خشکسالی برای دوره آماری موردبررسی قرار گرفت. برای انتخاب مناسب­ترین نمایه از ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن بین شاخص خشکسالی و تغییرات بارندگی در دوره آماری موردمطالعه استفاده شد. نتایج ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن نشان داد در ایستگاه­های سینوپتیک تهران، زاهدان، کرمان و یزد شاخص SIAP، ایستگاه­های گرگان، رشت و بندرعباس شاخص SPEI و در ایستگاه­های سنندج، بیرجند و ارومیه شاخص RAI با داشتن بالاترین ضریب همبستگی نسبت به دیگر شاخص­ها خشکسالی­های شدید و بسیار شدید را بهتر نشان دادند. در ارزیابی روابط همبستگی نمایه­های زوج شده در اکثر ایستگاه­ها زوج شاخص­های RAI-SPEI، RAI-SIAP و SPEI-SIAP از همبستگی بالایی برخوردار بودند و همبستگی سایر شاخص­ها با یکدیگر ضعیف بود. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد شاخص­های DPI و PN سال­های نرمال را بهتر نشان دادند و سه شاخص RAI، SPEI و SIAP توانستند خشکسالی­ها را بهتر برآورد کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Rainfall and Evapotranspiration-Based Drought Indices to Determine Meteorological Drought

نویسندگان [English]

  • Halimeh Piri 1
  • Mojtaba Mobaraki 2
1 Assist. Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Water and Soil, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 M.Sc., Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Water and Soil, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Monitoring systems are one of the tools required in drought management practices. With these systems, through the application of drought indices, it is possible to determine the intensity and the development of a drought location. In this study, RAI, DPI, PN, SPEI, SIAP, and SPI drought indices were used for quantitatively quantifying drought and its zoning in 10 selected weather stations in Iran. First, rainfall data of 1980 to 2013 was collected from local authorities. Then, each of the indicators were calculated and the severity of drought for the statistical period was evaluated. Spearman correlation coefficient, between the drought index and rainfall changes, was used to select the most suitable index. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that in the synoptic stations of Tehran, Zahedan, Kerman, and Yazd the SIAP index; in Gorgan, Rasht, and BandarAbbas stations the SPEI index, and in Sanandaj, Birjand, and Urmia the RAI index were superior in detecting the severe and very severe droughts when compared with the other indices. In correlation analysis of the coupled indices, in most of the stations, the couples of RAI-SPEI, RAI-SIAP and SPEI-SIAP indices were highly correlated and the correlation of other indicators was weak. Overall, the DPI and PN indices showed high suitability in capturing the normal years, while the RAI, SPEI and SIAP indices were better at estimating the droughts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought monitoring
  • Correlation coefficient
  • Geographic information system
  • Zoning
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