بررسی آلودگی و تغییرات مکانی غلظت کل سرب و کادمیوم، مطالعه موردی مسیر زابل به زاهدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله اصلی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

4 مربی، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

آلودگی خاک‌ها به سرب و کادمیوم تولید شده توسط خودروها یک مسئله زیست‌محیطی جدی می‌باشد. سرب در نتیجه استفاده از سوخت‌های بنزینی سرب‌دار و کادمیوم موجود در تایر خودروها از طریق استهلاک خودروها و ترافیک به محیط وارد می‌شوند. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تغییرات مکانی فلزات سرب و کادمیوم در خاک‌های کنارجاده‌ای زابل – زاهدان و ارزیابی آلودگی منطقه به این فلزات انجام شد. 252 نمونه خاک از عمق 0 -20 سانتی‌متری برداشت و غلظت کل فلزات سرب و کادمیوم، ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک شامل pH، EC و ماده آلی اندازه‌گیری شد. بررسی آلودگی خاک توسط فاکتور غنی‌شدگی و شاخص زمین‌انباشتگی صورت گرفت. نقشه پراکنش مکانی غلظت فلزات مورد مطالعه به روش کریجینگ ترسیم شد. میانگین غلظت در فاصله 0، 50 و 100 متری به‌ترتیب 12/2، 03/2 و 2 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم برای سرب که از میانگین جهانی (25 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) برای این فلز کمتر و همچنین، به‌ترتیب 21/0، 21/0 و 20/0 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم برای کادمیوم که از میانگین جهانی (53/0 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) برای این فلز کمتر بود. نتایج آنالیزهای زمین‌آماری نشان داد هر دو متغیر ناهمسانگرد بودند و مدل نمایی برای سرب و مدل گوسی برای کادمیوم بهترین برازش را داشتند. تجزیه و تحلیل نقشه پهنه‌بندی فلزات نشان داد که کادمیوم و سرب منشأ زمین‌شناسی و انسانی دارند. در حقیقت این فلزات به‌طور طبیعی در خاک وجود دارند اما فعالیت‌های انسانی سبب تجمع بیشتر این فلزات در خاک شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of contamination and spatial variations of Pb and Cd, a case study of the route between Zabol and Zahedan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vali Behnam 1
  • Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar 2
  • Mohamad Rahmanian 3
  • Abolfazl Bameri 4
1 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran
2 Assoc. Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran
3 Assisst. Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasooj University, Yasooj, Iran
4 Lecturer, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water Engineering, Zabul University, Zabul, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil contamination produced by Cd and Pb released from vehicles is a serious environmental problem. Lead as a result of using leaded petrol fuels and cadmium in the car tire is introduced into the environment through vehicle depreciation and traffic. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of heavy metals such as Pb and Cd at the roadside soils of Zabol - Zahedan route. 252 soil samples were taken from a depth of 0 -20 cm and the concentration of total lead and cadmium metals, physicochemical properties of soil including pH, EC and organic matter were measured. The contamination assessment of soil was done through using enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index. Metals’ spatial distribution maps for heavy metals concentration were used kriging methods. The mean concentration at 0, 50 and 100 meters, respectively, was 2.12, 2.03 and 2 mg kg-1 for lead, which is less than the global mean (25 mg kg-1) for this metal, and respectively 0.21, 0.21 and 0.20 mg kg-1 for cadmium, which was lower than the global average (0.53 mg kg-1). The results of the geospatial analysis showed that both variables were anisotropic and the exponential model for lead and Gaussian model for cadmium had the best fit.
Interpolation map's analysis showed that the cadmium and lead has geological and human origins. In fact, these metals naturally exist in soils, but human activity has caused the accumulation of these metals in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contamination
  • Spatial Variations
  • Kriging
  • Lead
  • Cadmium
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