تأثیرات سوء میکروپلاستیک‌ها در محیط‌های دریایی(مطالعه مروری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم محیط‌زیست، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه فیزیک دریا، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه فیزیک دریا، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

چکیده

میکروپلاستیک‌ها به‌عنوان آلاینده‌های نوظهور و کمتر شناخته‌شده، طی چند دهه اخیر مورد توجه محققین قرار گرفته‌اند. این آلاینده­ها به قطعات پلاستیکی با قطر کمتر از mm 5 گفته می‌شود که از راه‌های مختلفی به محیط‌های دریایی وارد شده و سلامت محیط و جانداران را به خطر می‌اندازد. در این پژوهش بر اساس مطالعات محققین مختلف این آلاینده معرفی  و  به برخی از اثرات آن در محیط‌های دریایی اشاره شد. بر اساس مطالعات، تأثیر میکروپلاستیک‌ها بر مهره‌داران و بی­مهرگان دریایی از طریق بلعیدن مستقیم قطعات پلاستیکی است که منجر به آسیب‌های داخلی در جانداران می­شود. همچنین این آلاینده­ها بر پراکنش گونه‌های خاصی از جانداران دریایی که از سطح این مواد به‌عنوان مکان­هایی برای تخم­گذاری استفاده می­کنند، دارای اثرات سوئی هستند. با این­حال، بسیاری از پژوهشگران، مهم‌ترین اثر میکروپلاستیک‌ها در محیط‌های دریایی را جذب آلاینده‌های شیمیایی بر روی آن‌ها برشمرده‌اند. به‌گونه‌ای که میکروپلاستیک‌ها علاوه بر انتقال این آلاینده‌ها، پایداری محیطی این مواد را نیز افزایش می‌دهند. بنابراین، پایش مستمر و دائمی این مواد و کشف نقاط داغ آلودگی‌های آن‌ها از اهمیت ویژه‌ای در مباحث محیط‌زیستی برخوردار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Harmful Impacts of Microplastics in the Marine Environment- A Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Bahri 1
  • Hosnie Ghaemi 2
  • Aziz Abdolahi 3
  • Mohammad Mehdi Doaie 1
1 M.Sc., Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 M.Sc., Department of Physical Oceanography, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
3 M.Sc., Department of Physical Oceanography, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
چکیده [English]

Microplastics as emerging and unfamiliar contaminants have been considered by researchers during the last decades. These small particles and fragments, typically have a size less than 5 mm and could penetrate into the marine environments by different ways, threatening the environment and animal health. Therefore, in this study, according to the studies by different researchers, this pollutant is introduced and some of its effects are mentioned in marine environments. One impacts of microplastics on marine organisms, such as marine vertebrates and invertebrates, arise from direct ingestion of plastic fragmentS by the marine biota leading into internal injuries. They also can have negative effects on the distribution of certain species of marine organisms, which they oviposit on the surface of these contaminants. Chemical adsorption is the most important impact of microplastics in marine environments, which not only transfers pollution, but also increases environmental resistance of these contaminants. Recent research works on the effects of microplastics pollution in the marine environment emphesis that permanent and continous monitoring of these materials and discovery of the pollution hotspots is crucial in environmental issues.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pollutant
  • Marine Biota
  • Water
  • Microplastic
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