نقش پروژه‌های آبخیزداری در کاهش فرسایش و رسوب حوضه‌های آبخیز

نوع مقاله: مقاله اصلی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کردستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، سنندج

2 مربی پژوهشی پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فرسایش خاک پدیده‌ای است که به‌‌ویژه در شرایط تشدید شونده منجر به تخریب و از بین رفتن خاک می‌شود. ازآنجاکه حیات جوامع انسانی مستلزم وجود آب و خاک است، برای جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک و هدر رفتن آب، عملیات مختلف بیولوژیکی و مکانیکی برای کاهش فرسایش، کنترل رواناب و بهبود شرایط پوشش گیاهی اجرا می‌شوند. در این تحقیق به‌منظور ارزیابی نقش عملیات آبخیزداری (بیولوژیکی و مکانیکی) بر فرسایش و رسوب حوضه چهل‌گزی سنندج، پس از شناسایی عملیات اجراشده، فرسایش و رسوب حوضه با بهره‌گیری از پارامترهای مدل پسیاک، تعیین شد. سپس تأثیر عملیات آبخیزداری با محاسبه مجدد فرسایش و رسوب و از طریق آزمون‌های آماری بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد رسوب‌دهی ویژه حوضه از 7/2 به 5/2 تن در هکتار کاهش‌یافته است. همچنین از سطح کلاس‌های با رسوب‌دهی بالا، کاسته شده و سطح کلاس‌های با رسوب‌دهی پایین، افزایش پیداکرده است. تحلیل آماری نشان داد که بین رسوب‌دهی قبل و بعد از اجرای عملیات آبخیزداری اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Watershed Management Projects in Reducing Erosion and Sediment of Watersheds

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Khaledian 1
  • Reza Bayat 2
1 Researcher in Kurdistan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Researchers in Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is a phenomenon that leads to destruction and loss of valuable soil, especially under accelerated conditions. As the life of human societies requires water and soil, variety of biological and mechanical operations are practiced in order to prevent soil erosion and water loss, runoff control, and to improve the soil vegetative coverage. In order to evaluate the role of biological and mechanical watershed management projects on the erosion and sediments of Chehel Gazi Watershed, Sanandaj, the erosion and sediment of the watershed was determined using MPSIAC Model after identifying the performed operations. Then using paired T-test method, the impact of watershed practices on decreasing erosion and sediment was investigated. The results showed that specific sediment of watershed has decreased from 2.7 to 2.5 ton/hectare. Moreover, the level of higher sediment classes decreased and level of lower sediment classes increased. The statistical analyses showed that there is a significant difference between sedimentation before and after the watershed management project.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Watershed Management
  • Chehel Gazi
  • Soil Conservation
  • Sediment
  • Erosion
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