مروری بر سازوکار حذف محصولات دارویی و مراقبت شخصی (PPCPs) از آب و پساب با پرتوهای یونیزان

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استادیار، پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته‌ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، کرج، ایران

چکیده

با رشد جمعیت، مصرف محصولات دارویی و مراقبت‌ شخصی (PPCPs) افزایش یافته است. PPCPsها شامل گروه متنوعی از دارو‌های مورد استفاده در دامپزشکی، فعالیت‌های کشاورزی، بهداشت و سلامت انسان مانند مسکن‌ها، آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها، هورمون‌ها و غیره می‌شود. به‌دلیل عدم توانایی فرآیندهای تصفیه فیزیکی مانند نانوفیلتراسیون و اسمز معکوس و زیستی مثل لجن فعال در تجزیه PPCPsها، این نوع آلاینده‌ها وارد رودخانه‌ها، دریاچه‌ها، آب زیرزمینی و حتی ذخایر آب آشامیدنی می‌شوند. با گسترش فن‌آوری‌های نوین، پرتوهای یون‌ساز برای تخریب PPCPsها در محیط‌های آبی پیشنهاد شده است. پرتوهای یون‌ساز برای حذف و معدنی کردن طیف گسترده‌ای از PPCPsها مؤثر بوده و کارایی حذف و معدنی کردن بیش از 50 درصد ترکیباتی مانند اسید کلوفیبریک، متوپرولول، اسید دیفنلیک، پاراستامول، اسید استیل سالیسیلیک، استووانیلون، کتوپروفن، ایبوپروفن، دیکلوفناک، سولفامتوکسازول و کلرامفنیکل دارد. در حذف PPCPsها با پرتوهای یون‌ساز، شناسایی محصولات حدواسط و نهایی برای یافتن سازوکارهای حذف آنها، بهینه کردن کارایی حذف و آگاهی از پایداری و سمیت مواد اصلی و محصولات فرعی تولید شده ضروری است. به‌دلیل گسترش مصرف خودسرانه انواع داروها، آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها و لوازم آرایشی و بهداشتی از یک طرف و استفاده سیستم لجن فعال برای تصفیه زیستی از در اکثر تصفیه‌خانه‌های فاضلاب و عدم توانایی این سیستم در حذف آلاینده‌های نوظهور مانند PPCPsها از سوی دیگر، پسآب‌های تولید شده در تصفیه‌خانه‌های ایران ممکن است حاوی غلظت قابل‌توجهی از PPCPs باشند. لذا، تحقیقات ملی برای بررسی حذف PPCPs یا دیگر آلاینده‌های آلی با پرتوهای یون‌ساز در مطالعات آینده مورد نیاز می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review on mechanisms of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) removal from water and wastewater by ionizing radiation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hemayat Asgari Lajayer 1
  • Nosratalah Najafi 2
  • Ebrahim Moghiseh 3
1 PhD Student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Nuclear Agriculture Research Center, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Consumption of PPCPs has been increased with population growth. PPCPs including a diverse group of drugs used in veterinary medicine, agriculture practices, human health, such as painkiller, antibiotics, hormones and etc. Due to the inability of physical treatment processes such as nano-filtration and reverse osmosis and biological process such as activated sludge in decomposition of PPCPs, these types of emerging organic pollutants are released into rivers, lakes, groundwater and even drinking water resources. With the development of new technologies, ionizing radiation is proposed to destroy PPCPs in aquatic environments. Ionizing irradiation is an effective method in removal and mineralization of a wide range of PPCPs and has removal and mineralization efficiencies more than 50% for compounds such as clofibric acid, metoprolol, diphenolic acid, paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, acetovanillone, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. For removal of PPCPs with ionizing radiation, identifying intermediate and final products is essential for realizing their removal mechanisms, optimizing their removal efficiency and awareness of stability and toxicity of original compounds and their byproducts. Due to increasing intractable use of drugs, antibiotics and cosmetics on the one hand and the use of activated sludge system for biological refinement in most wastewater refinement plants and the inability of this system to remove emerging pollutants as PPCPs on the other hand, effluents produced in Iran wastewater refineries may contain significant concentrations of PPCPs. Therefore, a national research is needed for the removal of PPCPs and other organic pollutants by ionizing radiation in future studies

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ionizing radiation
  • Nuclear Technology
  • Organic contaminants
  • PPCPs
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