ارزیابی کیفیت آلودگی چشمه‌ کارستی مبتنی بر سیمای بهره‌برداری و عوارض طبیعی: مطالعه موردی در محدوده مطالعاتی عجب‌شیر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی موسسه تحقیقات آب وزارت نیرو، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

10.22034/jewe.2020.251839.1438

چکیده

چشمه‌ها به‌عنوان یکی از منابع آب زیرزمینی و تأمین‌کننده حجم بالایی از آبدهی پایه رودخانه‌ها کم­تر مورد آنالیز و بررسی قرارگرفته‌اند. سرچشمه این منابع با توجه به عبور از ارتفاعات و صاف­سازی طبیعی، دارای کیفیت مناسبی بوده و تنها برخی سازندها و یا فعالیت‌های انسانی سبب تغییر در کیفیت این منابع می‌شود. این پژوهش به ارزیابی کیفی چشمه‌های محدوده مطالعاتی عجب‌شیر در شرق دریاچه ارومیه در سال 1397 پرداخت. با توجه به نوع سازندهای زمین‌شناسی، آبدهی و موقعیت چشمه‌های منطقه، ١٣ چشمه جهت آنالیز کیفی و ارزیابی تغییرات کیفی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. بررسی‌های انجام‌گرفته نشان داد که ١۰۰% چشمه‌ها از نظر کیفیت شرب بسیار مناسب بوده و شاخص کیفی GQI نیز مابین ٣٢/٩۵-٢٣/٣٣ بوده و در وضعیت خوب تا عالی برای این منابع بود. از نظر بهره‌برداری در بخش کشاورزی تنها موضوع بالا بودن میزان هدایت الکتریکی (µs/Cm٦٤٩۰ -١۵٧) در برخی چشمه‌ها وجود داشته و قلیایت کلیه چشمه‌ها بر اساس طبقه­بندی ویلکوکس  در کلاس S1 بود. وضعیت کیفی از دیدگاه صنعت نیز حاکی از دامنه کم تغییرات بوده و ٧٧% چشمه‌های منطقه خاصیت خورندگی داشتند. ارزیابی منشأ آب در این محدوده نیز حاکی از بالا بودن نسبت سدیم به کلر و تفاوت در منشأ کلسیم و سدیم بود، طوری‌که بخش‌های ابتدایی محدوده مطالعاتی و شرق محدوده دارای منشأ منیزیمی و مابقی دارای منشأ کلسیم بودند. در نهایت بررسی سازندهای زمین‌شناسی حاکی از تأثیر کم آن‌ها بر کیفیت بوده و غلظت بالای نیترات در بخش منتهی به دشت و آبخوان به‌علت فعالیت‌های انسانی و نشت فاضلاب مشهود و به­میزان  mg/l ٢٧ می­رسید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Quality of Pollution of the Karst Spring based on Exploitation and Natural Features in Ajabshir Study Area

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Sarai Tabrizi 1
  • Hamid Kardan Moghadam 2
  • Fatemeh Karami 3
1 Assist. Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Water Research Institute of the Ministry of Energy, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD Scholar, Department of Water Engineering and Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Springs as one of the groundwater sources and suppliers of high volume of river basin discharge have been less analyzed and studied.  The origin of these resources, due to the passage of natural heights and filtration, has a good quality and only some formations or human activities cause a change in the quality of these resources. This study evaluated the quality of springs in Ajabshir study area in the east of Urmia Lake in 2018. According to the type of geological formations, discharge and location of springs in the region, 13 springs were analyzed for qualitative analysis and evaluation of qualitative changes. Studies have shown that 100% these springs are very good quality in terms of drinking, and the GQI quality index is 33.23-95.32, indicating good to excellent condition for these resources. In terms of exploitation in the agricultural sector, the only issue was the high level of electrical conductivity (157-6490 µs/Cm) in some springs, and the alkalinity of all springs was in class S1 in Wilcox diagram. The quality situation from the industry point of view also indicated a low range of changes, and 77% of the springs in the region were corrosive. Evaluation of water source in this area showed a high ratio of sodium to chlorine and differences in calcium and sodium origin, so that the initial sections of the study area and the east of the area had magnesium source and the rest had calcium source. Finally, the study of geological formations showed their low impact on quality and the high concentration of nitrate in the part leading to the plain and aquifer due to human activities and sewage leakage was evident and reached 27 mg/l.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ajabshir
  • GQI index
  • Nitrate
  • Spring
  • water source
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