تحلیل هیدرودینامیکی نهشته‌های بستر رودخانه‌ای محل احداث سد زیرزمینی به‌منظور استحصال آب (مطالعه موردی سد زیرزمینی مشنق)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی آذربایجان‌شرقی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/jewe.2020.249955.1430

چکیده

امروزه، استفاده از فناوری سدهای زیرزمینی از روش­های کارآمد در استحصال آب باران و مدیریت سیلاب به‌منظور رفع کمبود منابع آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک است. سد زیرزمینی، جریان زیرسطحی آب را در مقطع عرضی رودخانه مسدود کرده آن را در زیر بستر رودخانه ذخیره می­کند. احداث سد زیرزمینی ضمن کمک به محیط‌زیست، جبران آب‌های سطحی و گسترش زمین‌های زیر کشت را به دنبال دارد. حجم آب استحصالی از این سدها بستگی به خواص هیدرولیکی و هیدرودینامیکی رسوبات آبرفتی دارد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر تعیین هیدرودینامیکی نهشته‌های بستر رودخانه‌ای سد زیرزمینی مشنق­ در شمال دریاچه ارومیه بود. امکان‌سنجی و تعیین محل محور سد، با استفاده از سیستم ArcGIS صورت پذیرفت. سه گزینه تعیین و پس از ارزیابی ژئوفیزیکی محل بازه اصلی با ضخامت m 14 آبرفت، نهایی شد. بررسی‌های زمین‌شناسی مهندسی نشان داد دانه‌بندی رسوبات بستر، از نظر تقسیم‌بندی متحد با بیش از 78% شن و ماسه در محدوده خاک‌های شنی غیریکنواخت دانه‌بندی شده قرار داشتند. بر اساس روش استاندارد سازمان مصالح آمریکا در محدوده شن رس‌دار و شن سیلت‌دار بودند. آزمایش لوفران نشان داد رسوبات آبرفتی دارای نفوذپذیری cm/s 0012/0 و تخلخل بالای 35% بود. بر این اساس آب قابل استحصال در هر دوره آبگیری مخزن سد، m3 163800 خواهد بود. آب شرب و بهداشت منطقه صدها کیلومتر دورتر از طریق خط انتقال آب زرینه‌رود تأمین می‌شود. احداث این سد با نگاه واقع‌بینانه به ارزش واقعی آب و نقش آن در جوامع بشری، اثرات ‌محیط­زیستی سازنده خواهد داشت که نیازمند بررسی مستقل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Hydrodynamic Analysis of Riverbed Deposits of Underground Dam Construction Site for Water Harvesting (Case Study Mashnaq Underground Dam)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahad Habibzadeh 1
  • Jamshid Yarahmadi 1
  • Alireza, Majidi 2
1 Assist. Professor, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azerbaijan, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Soil Conservation & Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Tehran. Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, the use of underground dam technology is considered as one of the efficient methods of rainwater harvesting systems and flood management in order to eliminate the shortage of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions. Underground dams block the subsurface flow of water across the river and stores it in the riverbed. The construction of an underground dam, while helping the environment, will compensate for surface water and expand cultivated lands. The content of water extracted from these dams depends on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic of alluvial sediments. The aim of the present study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the riverbed deposits of the Meshnaqeh underground dam in the north of Lake Urmia. Feasibility study and location of the dam axis was done using ArcGIS system. Three options were determined and finalized after a geophysical evaluation of the location of the main alluvium with a thickness of 14 m. Engineering studies showed that the sedimentation of bed was in gravel and sandy soils in UNIFIDE division with more than 78% of sand, and according ASTM method, were in the GC and GM. Lefranc experiment showed that alluvial sediments had a permeability of 0.0012 cm/s and a porosity above 35%. According to the special discharge, 163,800 m3 of water can be harvested in each flooding period. Drinking water and sanitation of the region is provided hundreds of kilometers away through Zarrinehroud water transmission line. The construction of this dam with a realistic view of the real value of water and its role in human societies, will have constructive environmental effects requiring independent study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alluvial thickness
  • Geoelectrical
  • Geotechnical
  • underground dams
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