بررسی مشخصه‌های سیلاب ناشی از شکست سد در محل تنگ‌شدگی‌ رودخانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله اصلی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

3 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کردستان، سنندج، ایران

10.22034/jewe.2020.245577.1411

چکیده

در این پژوهش تغییرات مشخصه‌های سیلاب ناشی از شکست سد وحدت (قشلاق)، در محل‌هایی که سطح مقطع رودخانه به دلیل فعالیت‌های انسان تغییریافته است، موردبررسی قرار گرفت. به این منظور از مدل HEC-RAS برای شبیه‌سازی شکست سد و روندیابی سیلاب ناشی از آن استفاده شد. داده‌های مربوط به بدنه سد و دبی رودخانه قشلاق در استان کردستان از شرکت آب منطقه‌ای استان کردستان تهیه شدند. در نرم‌افزار Map Arc پس از تبدیل مدل رقومی ارتفاع (DEM) به مدل سه‌بعدی (TIN)، پارامترهای موردنیاز و خطوط مربوط به مقاطع عرضی بر روی رودخانه رسم شدند. این داده‌ها به مدل HEC-RAS انتقال یافتند. با بررسی‌های صحرایی مقاطع عرضی اصلاح و ضریب مانینگ در پهنه‌های مختلف اندازه‌گیری شدند. از مسیر موردمطالعه تصاویر متعددی تهیه شد. ارتفاع پل و خاک‌ریزهای موجود در مسیر جریان با استفاده از GPS ایستگاهی اندازه‌گیری شدند. پل گریزه و محل خاک‌ریزی‌های موردمطالعه در این پژوهش که به­ترتیب در 23 و km 33 پایین‌تر از سد وحدت قرارگرفته‌اند، جهت بررسی تغییرات مشخصه‌های سیلاب در اثر تنگ‌شدگی موضعی انتخاب شدند. تغییرات ارتفاع و پهنای آب در نقاط موردمطالعه بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در محل پل گریزه دبی اوج سیلاب ناشی از شکست سد و عمق آب به‌ترتیب برابر m3/s 79/4773 و m 10 است. این مقادیر در محل خاک‌ریزها به‌ترتیب معادل m3/s 04/4330 و m 8/10 است. مقایسه این اعداد با داده­های محاسبه‌شده در مقاطع قبل از این موانع، بیانگر کاهش قابل‌ملاحظه ظرفیت عبور جریان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Flood Characteristics Due to Dam Failure in the Narrow Section of the Rive

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azad Miraki 1
  • Jamil Bahrami 2
  • Ata Amini 3
1 M.Sc. Alumni, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Assist. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Iran
3 Assoc. Professor, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, 66169-49688, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, changes in flood characteristics due to the failure of Vahdat Dam (Gheshlagh) in areas where the cross section of the river has changed, because of human activities, were investigated. For this purpose, the HEC-RAS model was used to simulate the failure of the dam and the resulting flood flow. Data on the dam structures and flow of the Gheshlagh River in Kurdistan Province, on which the Vahdat Dam is located, were obtained from the Kurdistan Regional Water Company. Using the ArcMap software, after converting the digital elevation model (DEM) to a three-dimensional model (TIN), the required parameters and lines related to the cross sections on the river were drawn. This data was transferred to the HEC-RAS model. Through field studies, cross sections were corrected and Manning coefficient was measured in different zones. After preparing images of bridges and embankments along the flow path, the height of the bridge and the embankments in the flow path were measured using station GPS. The Grize Bridge and the location of the studied embankments in this study located 23 and 33 km downstream of the Vahdat Dam, respectively, were selected to investigate the changes in flood characteristics due to local narrowing. Changes in water height and width in the study areas were investigated. At the site of the Grize Bridge, the peak of flooding due to dam failure and water depth was 4773.79 m3/s and 10 m, respectively. These values ​​at the embankments were 4330.04 m3/s and 10.8 m, respectively. Comparing these numbers with the data calculated in the previous sections of these contracted sites indicates a significant reduction in the flow capacity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flood Routing
  • HEC-RAS
  • Gheshlagh River
  • Kurdistan
  • Peak Flood
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