مروری بر سمیت ملامین در مواد غذایی و جنبه های بهداشتی آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه سم شناسی/فارماکولوژی، دانشکده داروسازی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته بهداشت و ایمنی مواد غذایی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

ملامین (Melamine) یک ترکیب آلی از مشتقات سیانامید است که 66% وزنی آن را  نیتروژن تشکیل می‌دهد. ملامین گاهی اوقات به‌طور غیرقانونی به منظور افزایش کاذب مقدار پروتئین به محصولات غذایی به‌ویژه شیر و فرآورده‌های آن اضافه می‌گردد. از طرفی تست‌های استاندارد اندازه‌گیری میزان پروتئین نظیر کجلدال  (Kjeldahl)و دیومس (Dumas)، مقدار پروتئین مواد غذایی را با اندازه‌گیری مقدار نیتروژن موجود تخمین می‌زنند. بنابراین با افزودن ترکیبات غنی از نیتروژن نظیر ملامین به مواد غذایی، این تست‌ها قادر نیستند نیتروژن منابع پروتئینی را از غیرپروتئینی تشخیص دهند. از اینرو انگیزه‌اقتصادی برای افزودن آن در مواد غذایی ایجاد می‌شود. در مارس سال 2007 سازمان غذا و دارو ایالات متحده رد پای ملامین را در غذای حیوانی وارده از چین (گلوتن گندم یا کنسانتره پروتئین برنج) مشاهده نمود که باعث بروز نارسائی سنگ‌های کلیوی و مجاری ادراری و هم‌چنین مرگ تعداد زیادی از سگ‌ها و گربه‌های خانگی گردید. به‌علاوه در اواخر سال 2008، حدود سیصد هزار کودک چینی در اثر مصرف شیرخشک آلوده به ملامین مریض شدند و 6 نفر از آن‌ها نیز فوت نمودند. در سال‌های اخیر بررسی سمیت ملامین در بروز آسیب دستگاه تولید مثل، تشکیل سنگ‌های مثانه و کلیه و حتی بروز سرطان مثانه بررسی شده است. امروزه در بسیاری از کشورها حد مجاز مقدار ملامین در شیر خشک کودک، به‌عنوان تنها منبع غذایی کودکان، و برخی مواد غذایی دیگر تعیین گردیده است که به تفصیل شرح داده می‌شود. در این مقاله مروری سعی شده است که در مورد کاربردها و ویژگی‌های ملامین و آنالوگ‌های آن، سمیت ملامین و آنالوگ‌های آن،  منابع آلودگی مواد غذایی با ملامین و مقادیر مجاز به‌همراه روش‌های شناسایی آن بحث و بررسی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review on Melamine Toxicity in Food Products and its Health Aspects

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mir-Jamal Hosseini 1
  • Javad Maleki 2
  • Ebrahim Mohammadi 3
1 Department of Toxicology/Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
2 Department of Food Health and Safety, Faculty of Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
3 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Melamine, an organic compound, derived from cyanamide, is composed of 66% by weight of nitrogen. It is sometimes illegally added to food products, especially milk and its products in order to increase tempting protein content. The standard tests to measure the protein, such as Kjeldahl and Dumas, estimate the amount of food proteins by measuring the amount of nitrogen available. Therefore, by adding nitrogen-rich compounds such as melamine to food, these tests are unable to differentiate non-protein nitrogen sources of the protein one. Hence, an economic incentive is created to add it to food. In March 2007, the United States FDA found traces of melamine in animal feed imported from China (wheat gluten or rice protein concentrate), which caused kidney stones and urinary tract disorders as well as death in large number of household dogs and cats. In addition, in late 2008, about 300,000 Chinese children fell ill due to the consumption of melamine-contaminated milk powder and six of them died. In recent years, examining the toxicity of melamine has been studied in hurting reproductive organs, forming bladder and kidney stone and even bladder cancer. Today, in many countries the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of melamine in baby milk powder, as an only source of food for children, and some other food products has been determined, which are elaborated. In this review article, it is attempted to discuss the uses and properties of melamine and its analogues, the toxicity of melamine and its analogues, sources of contamination of food with melamine and its maximum concentration level, and the methods to identify it. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Melamine
  • Protein
  • Toxicity
  • Food Contamination
 
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